How to format your references using the Leiden Journal of International Law citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Leiden Journal of International Law (LJIL). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. Goldston, 'The Scientist Delusion', (2008) 452 Nature, 17.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.S. Chen & D.W. Goodman, 'The Structure of Catalytically Active Gold on Titania', (2004) 306 Science (New York, N.Y.), 252–255.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.M. Samet et al, 'Biomedicine. Do Airborne Particles Induce Heritable Mutations?', (2004) 304 Science (New York, N.Y.), 971–972.
A journal article with 3 or more authors
M.X. Luo et al, 'Efficient Quantum Transmission in Multiple-Source Networks', (2014) 4 Scientific reports, 4571.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
H. Eisner, Managing Complex Systems (2005).
An edited book
X. Shen (ed.), Secure IP Mobility Management for VANET (2013).
A chapter in an edited book
J. Käyhkö et al, 'Recent Change—River Run-off and Ice Cover', in The BACC II Author Team (ed.), Second Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin (2015), 99.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Leiden Journal of International Law.

Blog post


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
U.S. Government Printing Office, Airline Competition: Fare and Service Changes at St. Louis Since the TWA-Ozark Merger, September 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.W. Walsh & M. Cooper, 'Illinois Pension Bonds to Test Investors’ Faith', New York Times, 18 February 2011

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleLeiden Journal of International Law
AbbreviationLeiden J. Int. Law
ISSN (print)0922-1565
ISSN (online)1478-9698
Political Science and International Relations

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