How to format your references using the Leiden Journal of International Law citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Leiden Journal of International Law (LJIL). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R. Hahn, 'Ronald Harry Coase (1910-2013)', (2013) 502 Nature, 449.
A journal article with 2 authors
E.T. Kiers & S.A. West, 'Evolutionary Biology. Evolving New Organisms via Symbiosis', (2015) 348 Science (New York, N.Y.), 392–394.
A journal article with 3 authors
C. Song et al, 'Self-Similarity of Complex Networks', (2005) 433 Nature, 392–395.
A journal article with 3 or more authors
F.D. Hulot et al, 'Functional Diversity Governs Ecosystem Response to Nutrient Enrichment', (2000) 405 Nature, 340–344.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
E. Exposito, Advanced Transport Protocols (2012).
An edited book
L.L. Christensen & D. Malin (ed.), Treasures of the Southern Sky (2011).
A chapter in an edited book
G. St-Jean & C.H. Bastien, 'Sleep Disorders', in J.C. Verster et al (ed.), Sleep and Quality of Life in Clinical Medicine (2008), 37.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Leiden Journal of International Law.

Blog post


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
U.S. Government Printing Office, School Lunch: Implementing Nutrition Changes Was Challenging and Clarification of Oversight Requirements Is Needed, January 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L.F. Burghardt, 'An Animal Sanctuary Is Under Pressure to Move', New York Times, 20 August 2006

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference R. Hahn, 'Ronald Harry Coase (1910-2013)', (2013) 502 Nature 449.
This sentence cites two references R. Hahn, 'Ronald Harry Coase (1910-2013)', (2013) 502 Nature 449; E.T. Kiers & S.A. West, 'Evolutionary Biology. Evolving New Organisms via Symbiosis', (2015) 348 Science (New York, N.Y.) 392–394.

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors:
  • Three or more authors: F.D. Hulot et al, 'Functional Diversity Governs Ecosystem Response to Nutrient Enrichment', (2000) 405 Nature 340–344

About the journal

Full journal titleLeiden Journal of International Law
AbbreviationLeiden J. Int. Law
ISSN (print)0922-1565
ISSN (online)1478-9698
Political Science and International Relations

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