How to format your references using the Leiden Journal of International Law citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Leiden Journal of International Law (LJIL). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C. Macilwain, 'Critics Blast US Missile Defence System as Flawed', (2000) 404 Nature, 799.
A journal article with 2 authors
S.K. Floyd & J.L. Bowman, 'Gene Regulation: Ancient MicroRNA Target Sequences in Plants', (2004) 428 Nature, 485–486.
A journal article with 3 authors
B. Naranjo et al, 'Observation of Nuclear Fusion Driven by a Pyroelectric Crystal', (2005) 434 Nature, 1115–1117.
A journal article with 3 or more authors
D. Peer et al, 'Systemic Leukocyte-Directed SiRNA Delivery Revealing Cyclin D1 as an Anti-Inflammatory Target', (2008) 319 Science (New York, N.Y.), 627–630.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S. Chandrasekaran, Health, Safety, and Environmental Management in Offshore and Petroleum Engineering (2016).
An edited book
T.P. Holmes et al (ed.), The Economics of Forest Disturbances: Wildfires, Storms, and Invasive Species (2008).
A chapter in an edited book
X. Zhang et al, '3D Augmented Reality Based Orthopaedic Interventions', in G. Zheng & S. Li (ed.), Computational Radiology for Orthopaedic Interventions (2016), 71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Leiden Journal of International Law.

Blog post


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
U.S. Government Printing Office, Race to the Top: Characteristics of Grantees’ Amended Programs and Education’s Review Process, December 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.M. Chapman & B. Vlasic, 'Strong Domestic Sales Help Lift Chrysler’s Results', New York Times, 31 July 2012

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleLeiden Journal of International Law
AbbreviationLeiden J. Int. Law
ISSN (print)0922-1565
ISSN (online)1478-9698
Political Science and International Relations

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