How to format your references using the Leiden Journal of International Law citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Leiden Journal of International Law (LJIL). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S.C. Wang, 'ESSAYS ON SCIENCE AND SOCIETY: In Search of Einstein’s Genius', (2000) 289 Science (New York, N.Y.), 1477.
A journal article with 2 authors
G. Di Paolo & P. De Camilli, 'Phosphoinositides in Cell Regulation and Membrane Dynamics', (2006) 443 Nature, 651–657.
A journal article with 3 authors
W.W. Cochran et al, 'Migrating Songbirds Recalibrate Their Magnetic Compass Daily from Twilight Cues', (2004) 304 Science (New York, N.Y.), 405–408.
A journal article with 3 or more authors
M. Labrador et al, 'Protein Encoding by Both DNA Strands', (2001) 409 Nature, 1000.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Deacon et al, Inflation-Indexed Securities (2004).
An edited book
J. Domingue et al (ed.), Future Internet – FIS 2008: First Future Internet Symposium, FIS 2008 Vienna, Austria, September 29-30, 2008 Revised Selected Papers (2009).
A chapter in an edited book
I. Androulidakis & F.–. E. Kioupakis, 'Intercepting Fixed Line Telephony', in F.–. E. Kioupakis (ed.), Industrial Espionage and Technical Surveillance Counter Measurers (2016), 37.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Leiden Journal of International Law.

Blog post
Else

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
U.S. Government Printing Office, Space Acquisitions: Development and Oversight Challenges in Delivering Improved Space Situational Awareness Capabilities, May 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Else

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Hubbard, 'As Syrian War Drags On, Assad’s Grip Tightens', New York Times, 25 September 2017

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference S.C. Wang, 'ESSAYS ON SCIENCE AND SOCIETY: In Search of Einstein’s Genius', (2000) 289 Science (New York, N.Y.) 1477.
This sentence cites two references S.C. Wang, 'ESSAYS ON SCIENCE AND SOCIETY: In Search of Einstein’s Genius', (2000) 289 Science (New York, N.Y.) 1477; G. Di Paolo & P. De Camilli, 'Phosphoinositides in Cell Regulation and Membrane Dynamics', (2006) 443 Nature 651–657.

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: G. Di Paolo & P. De Camilli, 'Phosphoinositides in Cell Regulation and Membrane Dynamics', (2006) 443 Nature 651–657
  • Three or more authors: M. Labrador et al, 'Protein Encoding by Both DNA Strands', (2001) 409 Nature 1000

About the journal

Full journal titleLeiden Journal of International Law
AbbreviationLeiden J. Int. Law
ISSN (print)0922-1565
ISSN (online)1478-9698
ScopeLaw
Political Science and International Relations

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