How to format your references using the Leiden Journal of International Law citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Leiden Journal of International Law (LJIL). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.B. Silk, 'Animal Behaviour: The Evolutionary Roots of Lethal Conflict', (2014) 513 Nature, 321–322.
A journal article with 2 authors
C.A. Worby & J.E. Dixon, 'Microbiology. Bacteria Seize Control by Acetylating Host Proteins', (2006) 312 Science (New York, N.Y.), 1150–1151.
A journal article with 3 authors
P.D. Rawson et al, 'Comment on ‘Divergent Induced Responses to an Invasive Predator in Marine Mussel Populations’', (2007) 316 Science (New York, N.Y.), 53; author reply 53.
A journal article with 3 or more authors
M. Mold et al, 'Copper Prevents Amyloid-β(1-42) from Forming Amyloid Fibrils under near-Physiological Conditions in Vitro', (2013) 3 Scientific reports, 1256.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
V. Magnasco, Models for Bonding in Chemistry (2010).
An edited book
A. Das (ed.), Tensors: The Mathematics of Relativity Theory and Continuum Mechanics (2007).
A chapter in an edited book
K. Kajikawa, 'Optical Metamaterials', in Y. Aoyagi & K. Kajikawa (ed.), Optical Properties of Advanced Materials (2013), 93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Leiden Journal of International Law.

Blog post


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
U.S. Government Printing Office, Advanced Technology Program: Inherent Factors in Selection Process Could Limit Identification of Similar Research, April 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
T. Fuller & R. Pérez-Peña, 'As California Fires Raced, Waiting Meant Dying', New York Times, 13 October 2017

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleLeiden Journal of International Law
AbbreviationLeiden J. Int. Law
ISSN (print)0922-1565
ISSN (online)1478-9698
Political Science and International Relations

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