How to format your references using the Leiden Journal of International Law citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Leiden Journal of International Law (LJIL). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Geanakoplos, 'Recession Watch: End the Obsession with Interest', (2009) 457 Nature, 963.
A journal article with 2 authors
S.E. Hyman & W.S. Fenton, 'Medicine. What Are the Right Targets for Psychopharmacology?', (2003) 299 Science (New York, N.Y.), 350–351.
A journal article with 3 authors
R. Daw et al, 'Chemistry and Energy', (2012) 488 Nature, 293.
A journal article with 3 or more authors
B.T. Greenhagen et al, 'Global Silicate Mineralogy of the Moon from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer', (2010) 329 Science (New York, N.Y.), 1507–1509.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
N. Robinson et al, How to Survive in Anaesthesia (2011).
An edited book
B.H. Singer (ed.), Recursive Partitioning and Applications (2010).
A chapter in an edited book
S. Dempe et al, 'Convex Bilevel Programs', in V. Kalashnikov et al (ed.), Bilevel Programming Problems: Theory, Algorithms and Applications to Energy Networks (2015), 117.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Leiden Journal of International Law.

Blog post
Else

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
U.S. Government Printing Office, Interactive Graphics in the United Kingdom, January 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Else

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Dynarski, 'For Poor, Getting to College Is Only Half the Battle', New York Times, 2 June 2015

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference J. Geanakoplos, 'Recession Watch: End the Obsession with Interest', (2009) 457 Nature 963.
This sentence cites two references J. Geanakoplos, 'Recession Watch: End the Obsession with Interest', (2009) 457 Nature 963; S.E. Hyman & W.S. Fenton, 'Medicine. What Are the Right Targets for Psychopharmacology?', (2003) 299 Science (New York, N.Y.) 350–351.

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors:
  • Three or more authors: B.T. Greenhagen et al, 'Global Silicate Mineralogy of the Moon from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer', (2010) 329 Science (New York, N.Y.) 1507–1509

About the journal

Full journal titleLeiden Journal of International Law
AbbreviationLeiden J. Int. Law
ISSN (print)0922-1565
ISSN (online)1478-9698
ScopeLaw
Political Science and International Relations

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