How to format your references using the Web Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Web Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stajic, J.: Quantum information processing. The future of quantum information processing. Introduction, Science, 339(6124), 1163, 2013.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kimmel, A. R. and Parent, C. A.: The signal to move: D. discoideum go orienteering, Science, 300(5625), 1525–1527, 2003.
A journal article with 3 authors
Desai, S. A., Bezrukov, S. M. and Zimmerberg, J.: A voltage-dependent channel involved in nutrient uptake by red blood cells infected with the malaria parasite, Nature, 406(6799), 1001–1005, 2000.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
He, P., Xu, B., Liu, H., He, S., Saleem, F. and Wang, X.: Polyoxometalate-based supramolecular gel, Sci. Rep., 3, 1833, 2013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Curtis, P. M.: Maintaining Mission Critical Systems in a 24/7 Environment, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ., 2011.
An edited book
Herrmann, K., Nieweg, O. E. and Povoski, S. P., Eds.: Radioguided Surgery: Current Applications and Innovative Directions in Clinical Practice, 1st ed. 2016., Springer International Publishing, Cham., 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Stansbury, R. S., Akers, E. L., Harmon, H. P. and Agah, A.: Simulation and Testbeds of Autonomous Robots in Harsh Environments, in Software Engineering for Experimental Robotics, edited by D. Brugali, pp. 71–92, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg., 2007.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Web Ecology.

Blog post
Andrews, R.: A Scientist Explains Why Your Cat Is So Weird, IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018), 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Scientific Research: Continued Vigilance Critical to Protecting Human Subjects, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hardiman, B. S.: Resilience of Forest Carbon Storage through Disturbance and Succession, Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH., 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J. and Grynbaum, M. M.: How NBC Was Scooped on Its Own ‘Access Hollywood’ Trump Video, New York Times, 9th October, B3, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stajic, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Kimmel and Parent, 2003; Stajic, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kimmel and Parent, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (He et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleWeb Ecology
AbbreviationWeb Ecol.
ISSN (print)2193-3081
ISSN (online)1399-1183
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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