How to format your references using the Web Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Web Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sperandio, V.: Microbiology. Virulence or competition?, Science, 336, 1238–1239, 2012.
A journal article with 2 authors
Prindle, A. and Hasty, J.: Biochemistry. Stochastic emergence of groupthink, Science, 328, 987–988, 2010.
A journal article with 3 authors
Choi, C. H., Hiromura, M., and Usheva, A.: Transcription factor IIB acetylates itself to regulate transcription, Nature, 424, 965–969, 2003.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Hishida, T., Kubota, Y., Carr, A. M., and Iwasaki, H.: RAD6-RAD18-RAD5-pathway-dependent tolerance to chronic low-dose ultraviolet light, Nature, 457, 612–615, 2009.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
New, T. R.: Hymenoptera and Conservation, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2012.
An edited book
Bachmann, F., Loosen, P., and Poprawe, R. (Eds.): High Power Diode Lasers: Technology and Applications, Springer, New York, NY, VI, 554 p. 543 illus pp., 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Samson, M. and Langevin, L.: Le rayonnement des droits de la personne en droit privé québécois: Que de chemin parcouru… mais que de chemin à parcourir!, in: The Influence of Human Rights and Basic Rights in Private Law, edited by: Trstenjak, V. and Weingerl, P., Springer International Publishing, Cham, 143–186, 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Web Ecology.

Blog post
Watch Live As Comet C/2014 Q2 Lovejoy Makes Its Closest Approach With Sun:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Department of Labor’s Past and Future Role in Offender Rehabilitation, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1975.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Trantham, L. C.: PSA surveillance following radical prostatectomy: What we know and why it matters, Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B.: U.S. Player Cleared in Meldonium Inquiry, New York Times, 20th September, B10, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sperandio, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Sperandio, 2012; Prindle and Hasty, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Prindle and Hasty, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Hishida et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleWeb Ecology
AbbreviationWeb Ecol.
ISSN (print)2193-3081
ISSN (online)1399-1183
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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