How to format your references using the Web Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Web Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mather, J. C.: Politics and prophecy, Nature, 467(7317), S9, 2010.
A journal article with 2 authors
O’Higgins, P. and Elton, S.: Anthropology. Walking on trees, Science, 316(5829), 1292–1294, 2007.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xue, S., Calvin, K. and Li, H.: RNA recognition and cleavage by a splicing endonuclease, Science, 312(5775), 906–910, 2006.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Mori, T., Koyama, Y., Maeda, N., Nakamura, Y., Fujishima, Y., Matsuda, K., Funahashi, T., Shimada, S. and Shimomura, I.: Ultrastructural localization of adiponectin protein in vasculature of normal and atherosclerotic mice, Sci. Rep., 4, 4895, 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kill, R.: The BRC Global Standard for Food Safety, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK., 2012.
An edited book
Conn, P. M., Ed.: Sourcebook of Models for Biomedical Research, Humana Press, Totowa, NJ., 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Mukherjee, J.: HIV/AIDS Care: The Minimum Package and Scaling Up, in Public Health Aspects of HIV/AIDS in Low and Middle Income Countries: Epidemiology, Prevention and Care, edited by D. D. Celentano and C. Beyrer, pp. 71–84, Springer, New York, NY., 2009.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Web Ecology.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: More Than 200 Life-Extending Genes Identified, IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018), 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Access to Arts Education: Inclusion of Additional Questions in Education’s Planned Research Would Help Explain Why Instruction Time Has Decreased for Some Students, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lewis, T. L.: Quantitative approach to technical performance measurement and technical risk analysis utilizing Bayesian methods and Monte Carlo simulation, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC., 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S.: A Theater Boom Is Born In Russian Film Industry, New York Times, 10th September, C4, 1998.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mather, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Mather, 2010; O’Higgins and Elton, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (O’Higgins and Elton, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Mori et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleWeb Ecology
AbbreviationWeb Ecol.
ISSN (print)2193-3081
ISSN (online)1399-1183
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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