How to format your references using the Web Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Web Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fehr, E.: The productivity of failures, Nature, 428, 701, 2004.
A journal article with 2 authors
Matsuoka, T. and Shimizu, K.: Direct observation of a pressure-induced metal-to-semiconductor transition in lithium, Nature, 458, 186–189, 2009.
A journal article with 3 authors
Travis, D. J., Carleton, A. M., and Lauritsen, R. G.: Contrails reduce daily temperature range, Nature, 418, 601, 2002.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Sargolini, F., Fyhn, M., Hafting, T., McNaughton, B. L., Witter, M. P., Moser, M.-B., and Moser, E. I.: Conjunctive representation of position, direction, and velocity in entorhinal cortex, Science, 312, 758–762, 2006.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tebbani, S., Lopes, F., Filali, R., Dumur, D., and Pareau, D.: CO 2 Biofixation by Microalgae, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2014.
An edited book
Katsy, E. I. (Ed.): Plasticity in Plant-Growth-Promoting and Phytopathogenic Bacteria, Springer, New York, NY, X, 208 p. 42 illus., 30 illus. in color pp., 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Griesinger, C., Desprez, B., Coecke, S., Casey, W., and Zuang, V.: Validation of Alternative In Vitro Methods to Animal Testing: Concepts, Challenges, Processes and Tools, in: Validation of Alternative Methods for Toxicity Testing, edited by: Eskes, C. and Whelan, M., Springer International Publishing, Cham, 65–132, 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Web Ecology.

Blog post
Pseudoscience And Conspiracy Theory Are Not Victimless Crimes Against Science:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: International Space Station (ISS) - Ongoing Assessments for Life Extension Appear to be Supported, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Porter, S. M.: Orthographic influence on the perception and production of Spanish loans in English, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rojas, R.: N.Y.U. Takes Cosby’s Name Off Workshop About Film, New York Times, 3rd September, A28, 2015.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fehr, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Fehr, 2004; Matsuoka and Shimizu, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Matsuoka and Shimizu, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Sargolini et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleWeb Ecology
AbbreviationWeb Ecol.
ISSN (print)2193-3081
ISSN (online)1399-1183
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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