How to format your references using the Radiological Physics and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Radiological Physics and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Mueller KL. Antibodies. The future is now. Introduction. Science. 2013;341:1191.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Resing JA, Barrett PM. Ocean chemistry: Fingerprints of a trace nutrient. Nature. 2014;511:164–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Yang X, Zhou Y, Xiao M. Entangler via electromagnetically induced transparency with an atomic ensemble. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3479.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Chan F, Barth JA, Lubchenco J, Kirincich A, Weeks H, Peterson WT, et al. Emergence of anoxia in the California current large marine ecosystem. Science. 2008;319:920.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. McCormick K, Salcedo J. SPSS reg Statistics for Data Analysis and Visualization. Indianapolis, Indiana: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
1. Magni L, Raimondo DM, Allgöwer F, editors. Nonlinear Model Predictive Control: Towards New Challenging Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Cheung J. The Arts-in-Education Programme. In: Joubert L, editor. Educating in the Arts: The Asian Experience: Twenty-Four Essays. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2008. p. 65–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Radiological Physics and Technology.

Blog post
1. Andrews R. These Extraordinary Wind Turbines Could Power Japan For Half A Century Using Just One Typhoon [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Federal Aviation Administration: Commercial Space Launch Industry Developments Present Multiple Challenges. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015 Aug. Report No.: GAO-15-706.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Mullis J. The impact of the media on public opinion of the police [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Greenhouse L. Chief Justice Advocates Higher Pay for Judiciary. New York Times. 2007 Jan 1;A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRadiological Physics and Technology
AbbreviationRadiol. Phys. Technol.
ISSN (print)1865-0333
ISSN (online)1865-0341
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles