How to format your references using the Radiological Physics and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Radiological Physics and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Lewin HA. Genetics. It’s a bull’s market. Science. 2009;324:478–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Bartek J, Hodny Z. Ageing: Old blood stem cells feel the stress. Nature. 2014;512:140–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Zhao Y, Tong C, Jiang J. Hedgehog regulates smoothened activity by inducing a conformational switch. Nature. 2007;450:252–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Ricaurte GA, Yuan J, Hatzidimitriou G, Cord BJ, McCann UD. Severe dopaminergic neurotoxicity in primates after a common recreational dose regimen of MDMA (“ecstasy”). Science. 2002;297:2260–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Waine C. Obesity and Weight Management in Primary Care. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
1. Zhou J-N. The Tree Shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) Brain in Stereotaxic Coordinates. Rong-Jun N, editor. Singapore: Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Charron DM, Chen J, Zheng G. Theranostic Lipid Nanoparticles for Cancer Medicine. In: Mirkin CA, Meade TJ, Petrosko SH, Stegh AH, editors. Nanotechnology-Based Precision Tools for the Detection and Treatment of Cancer. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 103–27.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Radiological Physics and Technology.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Biology’s Holy Grail: The Species And Its Controversial Recent History. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Inquiry About the Office of Telecommunications Policy. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1974 Feb. Report No.: B-151192.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Mihalas ST. Positive protective factors as moderators in the relationship between relational victimization and depression in minority adolescents [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tampa, FL]: University of South Florida; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kenigsberg B. Read All About It, If You Still Can. New York Times. 2017 Jun 22;C10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRadiological Physics and Technology
AbbreviationRadiol. Phys. Technol.
ISSN (print)1865-0333
ISSN (online)1865-0341
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles