How to format your references using the Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Howie, Akira Tonomura (1942-2012), Nature. 486 (2012) 324.
A journal article with 2 authors
S.M. Behar, C.M. Sassetti, Immunology: Fixing the odds against tuberculosis, Nature. 511 (2014) 39–40.
A journal article with 3 authors
Q. Yu, Y. Geng, P. Sicinski, Specific protection against breast cancers by cyclin D1 ablation, Nature. 411 (2001) 1017–1021.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D.J.-F. de Quervain, U. Fischbacher, V. Treyer, M. Schellhammer, U. Schnyder, A. Buck, E. Fehr, The neural basis of altruistic punishment, Science. 305 (2004) 1254–1258.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
N. Robinson, G. Hall, W. Fawcett, How to Survive in Anaesthesia, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2011.
An edited book
A. Bindereif, ed., RNA Metabolism in Trypanosomes, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
J.M. Borwein, M.P. Skerritt, Visualization and Geometry: A Postscript, in: M.P. Skerritt (Ed.), An Introduction to Modern Mathematical Computing: With MapleTM, Springer, New York, NY, 2011: pp. 187–201.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Rising Seas Due To Climate Change Claim Their First Mammal Species, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Information Technology: Homeland Security Should Better Balance Need for System Integration Strategy with Spending for New and Enhanced Systems, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C.-S. Wei, Towards Brain Decoding for Real-World Drowsiness Detection, Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Seymour, How About a Nightcap?, New York Times. (2015) BR11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComplementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
AbbreviationComplement. Ther. Clin. Pract.
ISSN (print)1744-3881
ScopeComplementary and alternative medicine

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