How to format your references using the Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
T.D. Schneider, The bottle, Nature. 406 (2000) 351.
A journal article with 2 authors
C. Pasare, R. Medzhitov, Toll pathway-dependent blockade of CD4+CD25+ T cell-mediated suppression by dendritic cells, Science. 299 (2003) 1033–1036.
A journal article with 3 authors
G. Wild, A. Gardner, S.A. West, Adaptation and the evolution of parasite virulence in a connected world, Nature. 459 (2009) 983–986.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
N.F. Endres, C. Yoshioka, R.A. Milligan, R.D. Vale, A lever-arm rotation drives motility of the minus-end-directed kinesin Ncd, Nature. 439 (2006) 875–878.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.B. Anderson, Bandwidth Efficient Coding, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2017.
An edited book
F. Bogomolov, Y. Tschinkel, eds., Geometric Methods in Algebra and Number Theory, Birkhäuser, Boston, MA, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
C. Morgado, T. Leitão, J.C. Cunha, An Approach for Characterizing Group-Based Interactive Environments, in: C. Lai, A. Giuliani, G. Semeraro (Eds.), Distributed Systems and Applications of Information Filtering and Retrieval: DART 2012: Revised and Invited Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014: pp. 79–100.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Solar Dynamics Observatory Releases Highlights From Year Four, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Commerce ADP Procurement: Contracting and Market Share Information, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
N. Verderame, An educational curriculum for registered dietitians to educate obese patients on the nutrition approach for stress management, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J.R. Oestreich, Aiding and Abetting Operatic Dabblers, New York Times. (2017) C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComplementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
AbbreviationComplement. Ther. Clin. Pract.
ISSN (print)1744-3881
ScopeComplementary and alternative medicine

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