How to format your references using the Radiation Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Radiation Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Smaglik P. Capturing competencies. Nature. 2003;421:871.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Palmer L, Lynch G. Neuroscience. A Kantian view of space. Science. 2010;328:1487–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Ziegler AD, Fox JM, Xu J. Agriculture. The rubber juggernaut. Science. 2009;324:1024–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Hatzivassiliou G, Song K, Yen I, Brandhuber BJ, Anderson DJ, Alvarado R, et al. RAF inhibitors prime wild-type RAF to activate the MAPK pathway and enhance growth. Nature. 2010;464:431–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Grinyer A. Palliative and End of Life Care for Children and Young People. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.; 2012.
An edited book
1. Dix J, Leite J, editors. Computational Logic in Multi-Agent Systems: 4th International Workshop, CLIMA IV, Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA, January 6-7, 2004, Revised Selected and Invited Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Dolce P, Vinzi VE, Lauro C. Path Directions Incoherence in PLS Path Modeling: A Prediction-Oriented Solution. In: Abdi H, Esposito Vinzi V, Russolillo G, Saporta G, Trinchera L, editors. The Multiple Facets of Partial Least Squares and Related Methods: PLS, Paris, France, 2014. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 59–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Radiation Oncology.

Blog post
1. Hamilton K. Male Mice Woo Females With “Love Songs” Similar to Songbirds. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Airport Development Needs: Estimating Future Costs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997 Apr. Report No.: RCED-97-99.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Alaiyegbami AO. Porescale Investigation of Gas Shales Reservoir Description by Comparing the Barnett, Mancos, and Marcellus Formation [Doctoral dissertation]. [ Lafayette, LA]: University of Louisiana; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Koblin J, Grynbaum MM, Maheshwari S. Fox Pitches Sports to Advertisers, but Specter of Its News Scandal Lingers. New York Times. 2017 May 16;B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRadiation Oncology
AbbreviationRadiat. Oncol.
ISSN (online)1748-717X
ScopeOncology
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles