How to format your references using the Radiation Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Radiation Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Cairns BR. The logic of chromatin architecture and remodelling at promoters. Nature. 2009;461:193–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Muoio DM, Newgard CB. Biomedicine. Insulin resistance takes a trip through the ER. Science. 2004;306:425–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Brengues M, Teixeira D, Parker R. Movement of eukaryotic mRNAs between polysomes and cytoplasmic processing bodies. Science. 2005;310:486–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Gao C, Liu T, Shuai C, Peng S. Enhancement mechanisms of graphene in nano-58S bioactive glass scaffold: mechanical and biological performance. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4712.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Early WF II. Contractor and Client Relations to Assure Process Safety. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
1. Taher N. Energy and Environment in Saudi Arabia: Concerns & Opportunities. Hajjar B, editor. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Martin J. Common Equipment in Interventional Radiology. In: Athreya S, editor. Demystifying Interventional Radiology: A Guide for Medical Students. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 15–20.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Radiation Oncology.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. At Chernobyl And Fukushima, Radioactivity Has Seriously Harmed Wildlife. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Commercial Space Launch Insurance: Views Differ on Need for Change to Insurance Approach but Clarification Is Needed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016 Nov. Report No.: GAO-17-88.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Tom DM. Impact on achievement with ST math after school instruction [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Bartlett B. It’s Not Too Late to Fix Fox News. New York Times. 2016 Sep 19;A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRadiation Oncology
AbbreviationRadiat. Oncol.
ISSN (online)1748-717X
ScopeOncology
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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