How to format your references using the Radiation Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Radiation Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Jayawardhana R. Astronomy. Unraveling brown dwarf origins. Science. 2004;303:322–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Schwartz MA, Chen CS. Cell biology. Deconstructing dimensionality. Science. 2013;339:402–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Haile-Selassie Y, Suwa G, White TD. Late Miocene teeth from Middle Awash, Ethiopia, and early hominid dental evolution. Science. 2004;303:1503–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Herbig J, Kraemer T, Mark M, Weber T, Chin C, Nägerl H-C, et al. Preparation of a pure molecular quantum gas. Science. 2003;301:1510–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Woolley T. Low Impact Building. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons; 2013.
An edited book
1. Li SZ, Jain AK, editors. Handbook of Face Recognition. Second Edition. London: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Nova R. Mechanical Behaviour and Properties. In: Kourkoulis SK, editor. Fracture and Failure of Natural Building Stones: Applications in the Restoration of Ancient Monuments. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006. p. 55–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Radiation Oncology.

Blog post
1. O`Callaghan J. Hyperloop One Performs First Test Of Groundbreaking Technology [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Human Services Integration: Results of a GAO Cosponsored Conference on Modernizing Information Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002 Jan. Report No.: GAO-02-121.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Sharma SP. U.S. Government Program Managers’ Competencies to Manage Satellite Acquisition Programs [Doctoral dissertation]. [Scottsdale, AZ]: Northcentral University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Shpigel B. Gonzaga Gets Closer to an Elusive Berth. New York Times. 2017 Mar 24;B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRadiation Oncology
AbbreviationRadiat. Oncol.
ISSN (online)1748-717X
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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