How to format your references using the Philosophical Psychology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Philosophical Psychology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zamble, D. (2015). ENZYMOLOGY. It costs more than a nickel. Science (New York, N.Y.), 349(6243), 35–36.
A journal article with 2 authors
Reyes, N., & Gadsby, D. C. (2006). Ion permeation through the Na+,K+-ATPase. Nature, 443(7110), 470–474.
A journal article with 3 authors
Davis, S. P., Finarelli, J. A., & Coates, M. I. (2012). Acanthodes and shark-like conditions in the last common ancestor of modern gnathostomes. Nature, 486(7402), 247–250.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hari, A., Zhang, Y., Tu, Z., Detampel, P., Stenner, M., Ganguly, A., & Shi, Y. (2014). Activation of NLRP3 inflammasome by crystalline structures via cell surface contact. Scientific Reports, 4, 7281.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sharma, Y. C. (2011). A Guide to the Economic Removal of Metals from Aqueous Solutions. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kleinaltenkamp, M., Plinke, W., & Geiger, I. (Eds.). (2015). Business Relationship Management and Marketing: Mastering Business Markets. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Placier, P., Pinnegar, S., Hamilton, M. L., & Guilfoyle, K. (2005). Exploring the Concept of Dialogue in the Self-Study of Teaching Practices. In C. Kosnik, C. Beck, A. R. Freese, & A. P. Samaras (Eds.), Making a Difference in Teacher Education Through Self-Study: Studies of Personal, Professional and Program Renewal (pp. 51–64). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Philosophical Psychology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, December 15). DARPA Has Created Self-Guided, Mid-Flight Changing Bullets. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2016). Intelligent Transportation Systems: Urban and Rural Transit Providers Reported Benefits but Face Deployment Challenges (GAO-16-638). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Al-Alawadhi, F. (2014). Oral History of Women Educators in Kuwait: A Comparative Model of Care Ethics Between Noddings and Al-Ghazali [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Cincinnati.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S. K. (2002, August 1). World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Orthodox Church Berates Vatican. New York Times, A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zamble, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Reyes & Gadsby, 2006; Zamble, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Reyes & Gadsby, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Davis et al., 2012)
  • 6 or more authors: (Hari et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhilosophical Psychology
AbbreviationPhilos. Psychol.
ISSN (print)0951-5089
ISSN (online)1465-394X
Applied Psychology

Other styles