How to format your references using the Quaternary Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Quaternary Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Melhuish, E.C., 2011. Education. Preschool matters. Science 333, 299–300.
A journal article with 2 authors
Frede, J., Jones, P.H., 2013. Development. Permission to proliferate. Science 342, 1183–1184.
A journal article with 3 authors
Coppedè, N., Villani, M., Gentile, F., 2014. Diffusion driven selectivity in organic electrochemical transistors. Sci. Rep. 4, 4297.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bailey, J.V., Joye, S.B., Kalanetra, K.M., Flood, B.E., Corsetti, F.A., 2007. Evidence of giant sulphur bacteria in Neoproterozoic phosphorites. Nature 445, 198–201.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Silverstein, D., Samuel, P., Decarlo, N., 2008. The Innovator’s Toolkit. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Albers, S., Alt, H., Näher, S. (Eds.), 2009. Efficient Algorithms: Essays Dedicated to Kurt Mehlhorn on the Occasion of His 60th Birthday, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Bonami, P., 2011. Lift-and-Project Cuts for Mixed Integer Convex Programs, in: Günlük, O., Woeginger, G.J. (Eds.), Integer Programming and Combinatoral Optimization: 15th International Conference, IPCO 2011, New York, NY, USA, June 15-17, 2011. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 52–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Quaternary Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Scientist Creates Diamonds From Peanut Butter [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2007. USDA: Information on Classical Plant and Animal Breeding Activities (No. GAO-07-1171R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shaw, R.M., 2012. The influence of organizational culture on employee attitudes towards information security policy (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C., 2008. Over the Years, It Feels Right at Home. New York Times LI4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Melhuish, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Frede and Jones, 2013; Melhuish, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Frede and Jones, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Bailey et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleQuaternary Research
AbbreviationQuat. Res.
ISSN (print)0033-5894
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
General Earth and Planetary Sciences
Earth-Surface Processes

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