How to format your references using the Quaternary Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Quaternary Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Silk, J., 2006. Astronomy. A journey through time. Science 313, 925–926.
A journal article with 2 authors
Papke, R.T., Gogarten, J.P., 2012. Ecology. How bacterial lineages emerge. Science 336, 45–46.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jaffer, H., Adjei, I.M., Labhasetwar, V., 2013. Optical imaging to map blood-brain barrier leakage. Sci. Rep. 3, 3117.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yamaguchi, A., Clayton, R.N., Mayeda, T.K., Ebihara, M., Oura, Y., Miura, Y.N., Haramura, H., Misawa, K., Kojima, H., Nagao, K., 2002. A new source of basaltic meteorites inferred from Northwest Africa 011. Science 296, 334–336.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kar, P., 2013. Doping in Conjugated Polymers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Shome, P., Sharma, P. (Eds.), 2015. Emerging Economies: Food and Energy Security, and Technology and Innovation. Springer India, New Delhi.
A chapter in an edited book
Deng, L., 2011. Front-End, Back-End, and Hybrid Techniques for Noise-Robust Speech Recognition, in: Kolossa, D., Häb-Umbach, R. (Eds.), Robust Speech Recognition of Uncertain or Missing Data: Theory and Applications. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 67–99.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Quaternary Research.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2014. “Gunshot” Sounds Used to Spot Whale Breeding Grounds [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2008. Medicare: Callers Can Access 1-800-MEDICARE Services, but Responsibility within CMS for Limited English Proficiency Plan Unclear (No. GAO-09-104). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hankins, S., 2010. A policy analysis of the Americans with Disability Act of 1990 (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B., 2016. Head of Columbia Records Promoted to Lead Sony Music. New York Times B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Silk, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Papke and Gogarten, 2012; Silk, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Papke and Gogarten, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Yamaguchi et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleQuaternary Research
AbbreviationQuat. Res.
ISSN (print)0033-5894
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
General Earth and Planetary Sciences
Earth-Surface Processes

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