How to format your references using the Quaternary Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Quaternary Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Li, W.K.W., 2002. Macroecological patterns of phytoplankton in the northwestern North Atlantic Ocean. Nature 419, 154–157.
A journal article with 2 authors
Olson, M.V., Varki, A., 2004. Genomics. The chimpanzee genome--a bittersweet celebration. Science 305, 191–192.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cossart, R., Aronov, D., Yuste, R., 2003. Attractor dynamics of network UP states in the neocortex. Nature 423, 283–288.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lewis, K.A., Gray, P.C., Blount, A.L., MacConell, L.A., Wiater, E., Bilezikjian, L.M., Vale, W., 2000. Betaglycan binds inhibin and can mediate functional antagonism of activin signalling. Nature 404, 411–414.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morrison, T.J., 2000. Functional Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Sigg, S., Nurmi, P., Salim, F. (Eds.), 2015. Mobile Computing, Applications, and Services: 7th International Conference, MobiCASE 2015, Berlin, Germany, November 12–13, 2015, Revised Selected Papers, 1st ed. 2015. ed, Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Nishino, S., 2011. Histamine in Narcolepsy and Excessive Daytime Sleepiness, in: Baumann, C.R., Bassetti, C.L., Scammell, T.E. (Eds.), Narcolepsy: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 47–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Quaternary Research.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2015. 5 Science Facts Jurrassic World Totally Ignored [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2015. Surface Transportation Security: TSA Has Taken Steps Designed to Develop Processes for Sharing and Analyzing Information and to Improve Rail Security Incident Reporting (No. GAO-15-205T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Karriem, K.L., 2010. The relationship between stress and emotional intelligence among direct-care workers (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rosen, J., 2012. Who Do They Think You Are? New York Times MM40.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Li, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Li, 2002; Olson and Varki, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Olson and Varki, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Lewis et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleQuaternary Research
AbbreviationQuat. Res.
ISSN (print)0033-5894
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
General Earth and Planetary Sciences
Earth-Surface Processes

Other styles