How to format your references using the Quaternary Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Quaternary Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cyranoski, D., 2003. Taiwan: Biotech vision. Nature 421, 672–673.
A journal article with 2 authors
Farquhar, G.D., Roderick, M.L., 2003. Atmospheric science. Pinatubo, diffuse light, and the carbon cycle. Science 299, 1997–1998.
A journal article with 3 authors
Redhu, S.K., Castronovo, M., Nicholson, A.W., 2013. Digital imprinting of RNA recognition and processing on a self-assembled nucleic acid matrix. Sci. Rep. 3, 2550.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Milly, P.C.D., Wetherald, R.T., Dunne, K.A., Delworth, T.L., 2002. Increasing risk of great floods in a changing climate. Nature 415, 514–517.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Haupt, R.L., 2015. Timed Arrays. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Moore, L.J., Turner, K.L., Todd, S.R. (Eds.), 2013. Common Problems in Acute Care Surgery. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Phan, R.C.-W., Whitley, J.N., Parish, D.J., 2011. Adversarial Security: Getting to the Root of the Problem, in: Camenisch, J., Kisimov, V., Dubovitskaya, M. (Eds.), Open Research Problems in Network Security: IFIP WG 11.4 International Workshop, INetSec 2010, Sofia, Bulgaria, March 5-6, 2010, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 47–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Quaternary Research.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2017. Scientists Finally Unravel Hawaii’s Bizarre Origin Story [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1998. USDA Telecommunications: Strong Leadership Needed to Resolve Management Weaknesses, Achieve Savings (No. AIMD-98-131). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Victoria, F.C., 2017. One on One (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2011. Like His Style or Not, Ryan Is a Keeper. New York Times D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cyranoski, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Cyranoski, 2003; Farquhar and Roderick, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Farquhar and Roderick, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Milly et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleQuaternary Research
AbbreviationQuat. Res.
ISSN (print)0033-5894
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
General Earth and Planetary Sciences
Earth-Surface Processes

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