How to format your references using the Quaternary Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Quaternary Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mindell, J.A., 2014. Cell biology. A SWELL channel indeed. Science 344, 585–586.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gillon, J., Yakir, D., 2001. Influence of carbonic anhydrase activity in terrestrial vegetation on the 18O content of atmospheric CO2. Science 291, 2584–2587.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, K., Hu, Y., He, J., 2012. Deformation cycles of subduction earthquakes in a viscoelastic Earth. Nature 484, 327–332.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sane, S.P., Dieudonné, A., Willis, M.A., Daniel, T.L., 2007. Antennal mechanosensors mediate flight control in moths. Science 315, 863–866.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fernando, A., Worrall, S.T., Ekmekcioǧlu, E., 2013. 3DTV. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Kaufman, H.L., Wolchok, J.D. (Eds.), 2007. General Principles of Tumor Immunotherapy: Basic and Clinical Applications of Tumor Immunology. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Sinz, W., Hoschopf, H., Kirschbichler, S., Tomasch, E., Steffan, H., Darwish, S.M.H., Almodimigh, M., 2013. Methods to Prevent or Mitigate Accidents with Large Animals, in: Öchsner, A., Silva, L.F.M. da, Altenbach, H. (Eds.), Characterization and Development of Biosystems and Biomaterials, Advanced Structured Materials. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 69–97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Quaternary Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Lab Worker Accidentally Infects Himself With Smallpox-Like Virus [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2002. Highway Research: Systematic Selection and Evaluation Processes Needed for Research Program (No. GAO-02-573). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Solomon, R.B., 2017. Analysis of Emergency Responder Preparedness to Active Shooter Incidents in Santa Barbara, Ventura, Los Angeles, and Riverside Counties (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
George, J., 2011. My Family’s Flop. New York Times WK10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mindell, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Gillon and Yakir, 2001; Mindell, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gillon and Yakir, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Sane et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleQuaternary Research
AbbreviationQuat. Res.
ISSN (print)0033-5894
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
General Earth and Planetary Sciences
Earth-Surface Processes

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