How to format your references using the Pathobiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pathobiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Johnson C. Paleontology. Megafaunal decline and fall. Science. 2009 Nov;326(5956):1072–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Knutson BA, Hahn S. Yeast Rrn7 and human TAF1B are TFIIB-related RNA polymerase I general transcription factors. Science. 2011 Sep;333(6049):1637–40.
A journal article with 3 authors
Day M, Langston R, Morris RGM. Glutamate-receptor-mediated encoding and retrieval of paired-associate learning. Nature. 2003 Jul;424(6945):205–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Liu L, Hausladen A, Zeng M, Que L, Heitman J, Stamler JS. A metabolic enzyme for S-nitrosothiol conserved from bacteria to humans. Nature. 2001 Mar;410(6827):490–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bullard B. Style and Statistics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Ehiri J, editor. Maternal and Child Health: Global Challenges, Programs, and Policies. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
De Padova MP, Tosti A. Pyruvic Acid. In: Tosti A, Grimes PE, De Padova MP, editors. Color Atlas of Chemical Peels. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012; pp 25–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pathobiology.

Blog post
Andrews R. Hulk-Like Antibiotics Seen Physically Tearing Superbugs Apart [Internet]. IFLScience. 2017 Feb [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. The Summer Feeding Program for Children: Reforms Begun--Many More Urgently Needed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gaudet CJ. A General Approach to the Direct Detection of Dark Matter. 2013

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Davey M, Walsh MW. One Judge to Decide the Future of Detroit. New York Times. 2014 Aug;A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePathobiology
ISSN (print)1015-2008
ISSN (online)1423-0291
ScopeCell Biology
Molecular Biology
General Medicine
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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