How to format your references using the Pathobiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pathobiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dalton R. US court slashes damages in polymerase-beta theft case. Nature. 2000 Oct;407(6806):824.
A journal article with 2 authors
Diao A, Lowe M. Cell biology. The Golgi goes fission. Science. 2004 Jul;305(5680):48–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Huang S, Lee C-TA, Yin Q-Z. Missing lead and high 3He/4He in ancient sulfides associated with continental crust formation. Sci Rep. 2014 Jun;4:5314.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mold M, Eriksson H, Siesjö P, Darabi A, Shardlow E, Exley C. Unequivocal identification of intracellular aluminium adjuvant in a monocytic THP-1 cell line. Sci Rep. 2014 Sep;4:6287.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Karamalidis AK, Dzombak DA. Surface Complexation Modeling. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Leitner M, editor. Crime Modeling and Mapping Using Geospatial Technologies. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Basu A, Bonakdarpour B, Bozga M, Sifakis J. Systematic Correct Construction of Self-stabilizing Systems: A Case Study. In: Dolev S, Cobb J, Fischer M, Yung M, editors. Stabilization, Safety, and Security of Distributed Systems: 12th International Symposium, SSS 2010, New York, NY, USA, September 20-22, 2010. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010; pp 4–18.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pathobiology.

Blog post
Fang J. Robotic Arms and Hands That Can Feel [Internet]. IFLScience. 2014 Oct [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: Agencies Need to Improve the Implementation and Use of Earned Value Techniques to Help Manage Major System Acquisitions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Robert NA. Cortile: World Building & the Traveler Archetype. 2017

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M. PRESIDENT TAKES PLANS TO VOTERS. New York Times. 1993 Sep;A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePathobiology
ISSN (print)1015-2008
ISSN (online)1423-0291
ScopeCell Biology
Molecular Biology
General Medicine
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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