How to format your references using the Pathobiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pathobiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Giles J. Think like a bee. Nature. 2001 Mar;410(6828):510–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jakob M, Hilaire J. Climate science: Unburnable fossil-fuel reserves. Nature. 2015 Jan;517(7533):150–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang K, Mittler JE, Samudrala R. Comment on “Evidence for positive epistasis in HIV-1.” Science. 2006 May;312(5775):848; author reply 848.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhukovsky EA, Lee J-O, Villegas M, Chan C, Chu S, Mroske C. TNF ligands: is TALL-1 a trimer or a virus-like cluster? Nature. 2004 Jan;427(6973):413–4; discussion 414.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Armstrong RA, Hilton AC. Statistical Analysis in Microbiology: Statnotes. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Banerjee B, Ceri S, editors. Creating Innovation Leaders: A Global Perspective. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Quillen E, Glahn D, Almasy L. The Strategy and Utility of the Endophenotype Approach to Neurobehavioral Function. In: Jagaroo V, Santangelo SL, editors. Neurophenotypes: Advancing Psychiatry and Neuropsychology in the “OMICS” Era. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2016; pp 81–102.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pathobiology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Scientists Discover Pain-Sensing Gene [Internet]. IFLScience. 2015 May [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Implementation Status of the Federal Technology Transfer Act of 1986. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Daczo Z. Wage inequality and the gender wage gap: Are American women swimming upstream? 2012

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. Two Old Buildings Win Friends in High Places. New York Times. 2002 Nov;147.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePathobiology
ISSN (print)1015-2008
ISSN (online)1423-0291
ScopeCell Biology
Molecular Biology
General Medicine
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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