How to format your references using the Pathobiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pathobiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Velasquez-Manoff M: Gut microbiome: the peacekeepers. Nature 2015;518:S3-11.
A journal article with 2 authors
Attisano L, Wrana JL: Signal transduction by the TGF-beta superfamily. Science 2002;296:1646–1647.
A journal article with 3 authors
von Caemmerer S, Quick WP, Furbank RT: The development of C₄rice: current progress and future challenges. Science 2012;336:1671–1672.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Robinson EJH, Jackson DE, Holcombe M, Ratnieks FLW: Insect communication: “no entry” signal in ant foraging. Nature 2005;438:442.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Swatton PJ: Principles of Flight for Pilots. Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2010.
An edited book
Cai Z, Li Z, Kang Z, Liu Y (eds): Advances in Computation and Intelligence: 4th International Symposium, ISICA 2009 Huangshi, China, Ocotober 23-25, 2009 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Chauvicourt F, Orlando S, Desmet W, Gyselinck JJC, Faria CT: Experimental Study on the Impact of the Number of Laminas on the Dynamics Behavior of an Electric Machine Stator; in Mains M (ed): Topics in Modal Analysis & Testing, Volume 10: Proceedings of the 34th IMAC, A Conference and Exposition on Structural Dynamics 2016. Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp 73–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pathobiology.

Blog post
Andrew E: Resetting the Timeline on the Evolution of Flowers. IFLScience 2013;


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: State Department: Tourist Visa Processing Backlogs Persist at U.S. Consulates. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Clavio G: Uses and gratifications of Internet collegiate sport message board users 2008;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW: At Food Co-op, a Rift Over Its Pension Fund. New York Times 2017;B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePathobiology
ISSN (print)1015-2008
ISSN (online)1423-0291
ScopeCell Biology
Molecular Biology
General Medicine
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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