How to format your references using the Quantum Information Processing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Quantum Information Processing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dial, K.P.: Wing-assisted incline running and the evolution of flight. Science. 299, 402–404 (2003)
A journal article with 2 authors
Schneider, R., Persson, S.: PLANT SCIENCE. Another brick in the wall. Science. 350, 156–157 (2015)
A journal article with 3 authors
Barrett, R.D.H., Rogers, S.M., Schluter, D.: Natural selection on a major armor gene in threespine stickleback. Science. 322, 255–257 (2008)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zaban, B., Liu, W., Jiang, X., Nick, P.: Plant cells use auxin efflux to explore geometry. Sci. Rep. 4, 5852 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Grimble, M.J.: Robust Industrial Control Systems. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, England (2006)
An edited book
Bove, A., Colombini, F., Santo, D.D. eds: Phase Space Analysis of Partial Differential Equations. Birkhäuser, Boston, MA (2007)
A chapter in an edited book
Hunt, W.A., Reeber, E.: Formalization of the DE2 Language. In: Borrione, D. and Paul, W. (eds.) Correct Hardware Design and Verification Methods: 13th IFIP WG 10.5 Advanced Research Working Conference, CHARME 2005, Saarbrücken, Germany, October 3-6, 2005. Proceedings. pp. 20–34. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2005)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Quantum Information Processing.

Blog post
Hale, T.: Why You Should Never Wear Cheap, Unfitted Contact Lenses


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Schools and Libraries Program: Update on State-Level Funding by Category of Service. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2001)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Decker, K.M.: A study of relationships between counselor education, social justice advocacy competence, and likelihood to advocate, (2013)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt, L.F.: In Great Neck, a Debate On Firefighter Housing, (2006)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleQuantum Information Processing
AbbreviationQuantum Inf. Process.
ISSN (print)1570-0755
ISSN (online)1573-1332
ScopeSignal Processing
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Modelling and Simulation
Theoretical Computer Science
Statistical and Nonlinear Physics

Other styles