How to format your references using the Quantum Information Processing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Quantum Information Processing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Greider, C.W.: Molecular biology. Wnt regulates TERT--putting the horse before the cart. Science. 336, 1519–1520 (2012)
A journal article with 2 authors
Wohlers, A., Wood, B.J.: A Mercury-like component of early Earth yields uranium in the core and high mantle (142)Nd. Nature. 520, 337–340 (2015)
A journal article with 3 authors
Jeffery, W.R., Strickler, A.G., Yamamoto, Y.: Migratory neural crest-like cells form body pigmentation in a urochordate embryo. Nature. 431, 696–699 (2004)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Revyakin, A., Liu, C., Ebright, R.H., Strick, T.R.: Abortive initiation and productive initiation by RNA polymerase involve DNA scrunching. Science. 314, 1139–1143 (2006)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wexler, S., Shaffer, J., Cotgreave, A.: The Big Book of Dashboards. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2017)
An edited book
Zhu, G. ed: NMR of Proteins and Small Biomolecules. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2012)
A chapter in an edited book
Luby, S., Gurley, E.: Epidemiology of Henipaviruses. In: Shapshak, P., Sinnott, J.T., Somboonwit, C., and Kuhn, J.H. (eds.) Global Virology I - Identifying and Investigating Viral Diseases. pp. 55–71. Springer, New York, NY (2015)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Quantum Information Processing.

Blog post
Carpineti, C.: This “Cosmic Jellyfish” is Weird and Wonderful


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Financial Management Systems: Core Financial Systems at the 24 Chief Financial Officers Act Agencies. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2003)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Robertson, O.: Gender and Crew Resource Management: A Phenomenological Qualitative Study, (2014)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C.: Thinking Beyond the Creationists and the Darwinists, (2013)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleQuantum Information Processing
AbbreviationQuantum Inf. Process.
ISSN (print)1570-0755
ISSN (online)1573-1332
ScopeSignal Processing
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Modelling and Simulation
Theoretical Computer Science
Statistical and Nonlinear Physics

Other styles