How to format your references using the Quantum Information Processing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Quantum Information Processing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nathan, C.: Points of control in inflammation. Nature. 420, 846–852 (2002)
A journal article with 2 authors
Lumpkin, E.A., Caterina, M.J.: Mechanisms of sensory transduction in the skin. Nature. 445, 858–865 (2007)
A journal article with 3 authors
Gottfried, J.A., O’Doherty, J., Dolan, R.J.: Encoding predictive reward value in human amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex. Science. 301, 1104–1107 (2003)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ryan, J.V., Berry, A.D., Anderson, M.L., Long, J.W., Stroud, R.M., Cepak, V.M., Browning, V.M., Rolison, D.R., Merzbacher, C.I.: Electronic connection to the interior of a mesoporous insulator with nanowires of crystalline RuO2. Nature. 406, 169–172 (2000)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mitola, J., III: Software Radio Architecture. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, USA (2002)
An edited book
Alapati, S.R.: Oracle Database 11g Performance Tuning Recipes: A Problem-Solution Approach. Apress, Berkeley, CA (2011)
A chapter in an edited book
Goto, Y., Shibata, K.: Emergence of Higher Exploration in Reinforcement Learning Using a Chaotic Neural Network. In: Hirose, A., Ozawa, S., Doya, K., Ikeda, K., Lee, M., and Liu, D. (eds.) Neural Information Processing: 23rd International Conference, ICONIP 2016, Kyoto, Japan, October 16–21, 2016, Proceedings, Part I. pp. 40–48. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Quantum Information Processing.

Blog post
Andrews, R.: 815-Million-Year-Old “Time Capsule” Reveals Atmosphere Breathed By Earth’s Very First Animals,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Major ADP Systems: DOD Does Not Always Comply With Statutory Restriction on Obligations. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1991)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Loden, M.R.: The rhetorical elephant in the room: How three political action committees are strategically [re]defining the U.S. Republican Party, (2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pols, M.: With Friends Like These, (2015)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleQuantum Information Processing
AbbreviationQuantum Inf. Process.
ISSN (print)1570-0755
ISSN (online)1573-1332
ScopeSignal Processing
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Modelling and Simulation
Theoretical Computer Science
Statistical and Nonlinear Physics

Other styles