How to format your references using the Qualitative Theory of Dynamical Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Qualitative Theory of Dynamical Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bernstein, A.: Collaboration: Link the world’s best investigators. Nature. 496, 27 (2013)
A journal article with 2 authors
Sloan, P.A., Palmer, R.E.: Two-electron dissociation of single molecules by atomic manipulation at room temperature. Nature. 434, 367–371 (2005)
A journal article with 3 authors
Müller, H., Peters, A., Chu, S.: A precision measurement of the gravitational redshift by the interference of matter waves. Nature. 463, 926–929 (2010)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hochberg, G.K.A., Shepherd, D.A., Marklund, E.G., Santhanagoplan, I., Degiacomi, M.T., Laganowsky, A., Allison, T.M., Basha, E., Marty, M.T., Galpin, M.R., Struwe, W.B., Baldwin, A.J., Vierling, E., Benesch, J.L.P.: Structural principles that enable oligomeric small heat-shock protein paralogs to evolve distinct functions. Science. 359, 930–935 (2018)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Scheller-Sheridan, C.: Basic Guide to Dental Instruments. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., West Sussex, UK (2011)
An edited book
Avram, N.M., Brik, M.G. eds: Optical Properties of 3d-Ions in Crystals: Spectroscopy and Crystal Field Analysis. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2013)
A chapter in an edited book
Cho, I.-Y., Sunwoo, J., Son, Y.-K., Oh, M.-H., Lee, C.-H.: Development of a Single 3-Axis Accelerometer Sensor Based Wearable Gesture Recognition Band. In: Indulska, J., Ma, J., Yang, L.T., Ungerer, T., and Cao, J. (eds.) Ubiquitous Intelligence and Computing: 4th International Conference, UIC 2007, Hong Kong, China, July 11-13, 2007. Proceedings. pp. 43–52. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2007)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Qualitative Theory of Dynamical Systems.

Blog post
Luntz, S.: Travel Through The Solar System At The Speed Of Light


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Space Shuttle: Changes to the Solid Rocket Motor Contract. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1988)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cummins, K.: A Mixed Methods Study on The Leader in Me Process: How Does Fostering Student Leadership Capacity Influence Behavior, Efficacy, and Achievement?, (2015)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, S.: Prep School Game Introduces Motivation Skills to Inner City Children, (2002)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleQualitative Theory of Dynamical Systems
AbbreviationQual. Theory Dyn. Syst.
ISSN (print)1575-5460
ISSN (online)1662-3592
ScopeApplied Mathematics
Discrete Mathematics and Combinatorics

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