How to format your references using the Burns Open citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Burns Open. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Briciu A-E. Wavelet analysis of lunar semidiurnal tidal influence on selected inland rivers across the globe. Sci Rep 2014;4:4193.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sykes M, Nikolic B. Treatment of severe autoimmune disease by stem-cell transplantation. Nature 2005;435:620–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Vergoz V, Schreurs HA, Mercer AR. Queen pheromone blocks aversive learning in young worker bees. Science 2007;317:384–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tsai D-S, Lien W-C, Lien D-H, Chen K-M, Tsai M-L, Senesky DG, et al. Solar-blind photodetectors for harsh electronics. Sci Rep 2013;3:2628.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lacalle D. Life in the Financial Markets. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Janson CG. Peptide Nucleic Acids, Morpholinos and Related Antisense Biomolecules. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Firoozye NB, Ariff F. Probability: The Building Blocks. In: Ariff F, editor. Managing Uncertainty, Mitigating Risk: Tackling the Unknown in Financial Risk Assessment and Decision Making, London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016, p. 55–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Burns Open.

Blog post
Luntz S. Hubble Detects Massive Gas Halo Surrounding Andromeda Galaxy. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Health Information Technology: HHS Is Taking Steps to Develop a National Strategy. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Errett R. Acid Mine Drainage In The Big Muddy River Watershed. Doctoral dissertation. Southern Illinois University, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eligon J, Smith M. Police Shooting Rattles Somalis in Minneapolis. New York Times 2017:A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBurns Open
ISSN (print)2468-9122

Other styles