How to format your references using the Qualitative Sociology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Qualitative Sociology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Snieder, R. 2000. The tube worm turns. Nature 406: 939.
A journal article with 2 authors
Knapp, Sandra, and James Mallet. 2003. Ecology. Refuting refugia? Science (New York, N.Y.) 300: 71–72.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pfanner, Nikolaus, Nils Wiedemann, and Chris Meisinger. 2004. Cell biology. Double membrane fusion. Science (New York, N.Y.) 305: 1723–1724.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Ginhoux, Florent, Melanie Greter, Marylene Leboeuf, Sayan Nandi, Peter See, Solen Gokhan, Mark F. Mehler, et al. 2010. Fate mapping analysis reveals that adult microglia derive from primitive macrophages. Science (New York, N.Y.) 330: 841–845.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Noldus, Rogier. 2006. CAMEL. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Loh, Christian Sebastian, Yanyan Sheng, and Dirk Ifenthaler, ed. 2015. Serious Games Analytics: Methodologies for Performance Measurement, Assessment, and Improvement. Advances in Game-Based Learning. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Rebeiro, Chester, Debdeep Mukhopadhyay, and Sarani Bhattacharya. 2015. Time-Driven Cache Attacks. In Timing Channels in Cryptography: A Micro-Architectural Perspective, ed. Debdeep Mukhopadhyay and Sarani Bhattacharya, 53–70. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Qualitative Sociology.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. Secrets Behind Beetle’s Explosive Properties Revealed. IFLScience. IFLScience. May 4.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2014. College-and-Career Readiness: States Have Made Progress in Implementing New Standards and Assessments, but Challenges Remain. GAO-15-104R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Detoya, Maria Stephanie. 2017. Canned Food Choices of College Students Using the Nuval ® Nutrient-Profiling System. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, Kelly. 2001. You Let Your Hair Down, and This Barkeep Cuts It. New York Times, April 8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Snieder 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Snieder 2000; Knapp and Mallet 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Knapp and Mallet 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Ginhoux et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleQualitative Sociology
AbbreviationQual. Sociol.
ISSN (print)0162-0436
ISSN (online)1573-7837
ScopeSociology and Political Science

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