How to format your references using the Qualitative Sociology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Qualitative Sociology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fratzl, Peter. 2012. Materials science. A composite matter of alignment. Science (New York, N.Y.) 335: 177–178.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shen, Binzhang, and Howard M. Goodman. 2004. Uridine addition after microRNA-directed cleavage. Science (New York, N.Y.) 306: 997.
A journal article with 3 authors
Moseley, Rachel L., Friedemann Pulvermüller, and Yury Shtyrov. 2013. Sensorimotor semantics on the spot: brain activity dissociates between conceptual categories within 150 ms. Scientific reports 3: 1928.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Pearthree, Philip A., Jon E. Spencer, James E. Faulds, and P. Kyle House. 2008. Comment on “Age and evolution of the Grand Canyon revealed by U-Pb dating of water table-type speleothems.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 321: 1634.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Audibert, Pierre. 2013. Mathematics for Informatics and Computer Science. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ramer, Karen. 2005. Nuclear Medicine Technology: Review Questions for the Board Examinations. Edited by Abass Alavi. Second Edition. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Patwary, Md Mostofa Ali, Nadathur Rajagopalan Satish, Narayanan Sundaram, Jongsoo Park, Michael J. Anderson, Satya Gautam Vadlamudi, Dipankar Das, Sergey G. Pudov, Vadim O. Pirogov, and Pradeep Dubey. 2015. Parallel Efficient Sparse Matrix-Matrix Multiplication on Multicore Platforms. In High Performance Computing: 30th International Conference, ISC High Performance 2015, Frankfurt, Germany, July 12-16, 2015, Proceedings, ed. Julian M. Kunkel and Thomas Ludwig, 48–57. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Qualitative Sociology.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2014. Bizarre Hourglass-Shaped Fossils Belonged to Our Distant Cousins. IFLScience. IFLScience. October 17.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1993. NASA Property: Improving Management of Government Equipment Provided to Contractors. NSIAD-93-191. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ramakrishnan, Tyagi. 2017. Rehabilitating Asymmetric Gait Using Asymmetry. Doctoral dissertation, Tampa, FL: University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, Christopher. 2012. Giving Conservative Films A Head Start, Right Here. New York Times, September 16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fratzl 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Shen and Goodman 2004; Fratzl 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shen and Goodman 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Pearthree et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleQualitative Sociology
AbbreviationQual. Sociol.
ISSN (print)0162-0436
ISSN (online)1573-7837
ScopeSociology and Political Science

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