How to format your references using the Qualitative Sociology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Qualitative Sociology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Piran, Tsvi. 2002. Astronomy. Demotion looms for gamma-ray bursts. Science (New York, N.Y.) 295: 986–987.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ueba, Hiromu, and Martin Wolf. 2005. Chemistry. Lateral hopping requires molecular rocking. Science (New York, N.Y.) 310: 1774–1775.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sillanpää, Mika A., Jae I. Park, and Raymond W. Simmonds. 2007. Coherent quantum state storage and transfer between two phase qubits via a resonant cavity. Nature 449: 438–442.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Sang, Liwen, Junqing Hu, Rujia Zou, Yasuo Koide, and Meiyong Liao. 2013. Arbitrary multicolor photodetection by hetero-integrated semiconductor nanostructures. Scientific reports 3: 2368.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brower, Michael C. 2012. Wind Resource Assessment. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ho, Jeffrey D., and Mark W. Kroll, ed. 2009. TASER® Conducted Electrical Weapons: Physiology, Pathology, and Law. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Nosten, Francois, Penelope A. Phillips-Howard, and Feiko O. ter Kuile. 2012. Other 4-Methanolquinolines, Amyl Alcohols and Phentathrenes: Mefloquine, Lumefantrine and Halofantrine. In Treatment and Prevention of Malaria: Antimalarial Drug Chemistry, Action and Use, ed. Henry M. Staines and Sanjeev Krishna, 95–111. Basel: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Qualitative Sociology.

Blog post
Hamilton, Kristy. 2016. What If Nature, Like Corporations, Had The Rights And Protections Of A Person? IFLScience. IFLScience. October 10.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1996. Space Station: Cost Control Difficulties Continue. NSIAD-96-135. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Salie, Achmat. 2008. Servant-minded leadership and work satisfaction in Islamic organizations: A correlational mixed study. Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kolomatsky, Michael. 2017. Career Over, Where to Move? New York Times, April 28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Piran 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Piran 2002; Ueba and Wolf 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ueba and Wolf 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Sang et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleQualitative Sociology
AbbreviationQual. Sociol.
ISSN (print)0162-0436
ISSN (online)1573-7837
ScopeSociology and Political Science

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