How to format your references using the Qualitative Sociology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Qualitative Sociology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kerr, R. A. 2000. OIL OUTLOOK:USGS Optimistic on World Oil Prospects. Science (New York, N.Y.) 289: 237.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shedlock, Devon J., and Hao Shen. 2003. Requirement for CD4 T cell help in generating functional CD8 T cell memory. Science (New York, N.Y.) 300: 337–339.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fish, Jennifer, Nicola Raule, and Giuseppe Attardi. 2004. Discovery of a major D-loop replication origin reveals two modes of human mtDNA synthesis. Science (New York, N.Y.) 306: 2098–2101.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Saito, Motoaki, Panagiota Tsounapi, Ryo Oikawa, Shogo Shimizu, Masashi Honda, Takehiro Sejima, Yukako Kinoshita, and Shuhei Tomita. 2014. Prostatic ischemia induces ventral prostatic hyperplasia in the SHR; possible mechanism of development of BPH. Scientific reports 4: 3822.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nash, Jen. 2013. Diabetes and Wellbeing. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Boer, Jacob, ed. 2010. Chlorinated Paraffins. Vol. 10. The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Reiner, Miriam. 2008. Seeing Through Touch: The Role of Haptic Information in Visualization. In Visualization: Theory and Practice in Science Education, ed. John K. Gilbert, Miriam Reiner, and Mary Nakhleh, 73–84. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Qualitative Sociology.

Blog post
Taub, Ben. 2016. Friendship Helps Chimps De-Stress. IFLScience. IFLScience. November 11.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. Consolidated Education Planning: State Education Agencies’ Implementation of Consolidated Planning at the Local Level. HEHS-99-33R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hylton, Jessica K. 2016. Scatter; Or, A Series or Minor Inconveniences. Doctoral dissertation, Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, John. 2017. Baldwin Burns Strong. New York Times, May 11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kerr 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Kerr 2000; Shedlock and Shen 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shedlock and Shen 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Saito et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleQualitative Sociology
AbbreviationQual. Sociol.
ISSN (print)0162-0436
ISSN (online)1573-7837
ScopeSociology and Political Science

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