How to format your references using the F1000Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for F1000Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. Clearing your own path. Nature. 2002 Nov 28;420(6914):3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Que L Jr, Tolman WB. Biologically inspired oxidation catalysis. Nature. 2008 Sep 18;455(7211):333–40.
A journal article with 3 authors
Worobey M, Han G-Z, Rambaut A. A synchronized global sweep of the internal genes of modern avian influenza virus. Nature. 2014 Apr 10;508(7495):254–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Reineke S, Lindner F, Schwartz G, Seidler N, Walzer K, Lüssem B, et al. White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency. Nature. 2009 May 14;459(7244):234–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Davino C, Furno M, Vistocco D. Quantile Regression: Theory and Applications. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014. (Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics).
An edited book
Pellegrino C, Sena-Cruz J, editors. Design Procedures for the Use of Composites in Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Structures: State-of-the-Art Report of the RILEM Technical Committee 234-DUC. 1st ed. 2016. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2016. XIV, 392 p. 207 illus. (RILEM State-of-the-Art Reports; vol. 19).
A chapter in an edited book
Seye CI, Weisman GA. The P2Y2 Nucleotide Receptor in Vascular Inflammation and Angiogenesis. In: Gerasimovskaya E, Kaczmarek E, editors. Extracellular ATP and Adenosine as Regulators of Endothelial Cell Function: Implications for Health and Disease. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010. p. 57–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for F1000Research.

Blog post
Taub B. Outrageous Drunken Behavior Linked To Genetic Mutation [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: Challenges Remain for VA’s Sharing of Electronic Health Records with DOD. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009 Mar. Report No.: GAO-09-427T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lyngarkos B. Examination of the relative importance of website elements for users of manufacturers representative websites [Doctoral dissertation]. [Scottsdale, AZ]: Northcentral University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B. Poetry in Missed Connections. New York Times. 2017 Jun 21;C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleF1000Research
ISSN (online)2046-1402

Other styles