How to format your references using the F1000Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for F1000Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gupta S. Avoiding ambiguity. Nature. 2001 Aug 9;412(6847):589.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kump LR, Pollard D. Amplification of Cretaceous warmth by biological cloud feedbacks. Science. 2008 Apr 11;320(5873):195.
A journal article with 3 authors
Deng L, Shangguan Z-P, Sweeney S. “Grain for Green” driven land use change and carbon sequestration on the Loess Plateau, China. Sci Rep. 2014 Nov 13;4:7039.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ghorbani-Asl M, Zibouche N, Wahiduzzaman M, Oliveira AF, Kuc A, Heine T. Electromechanics in MoS₂ and WS₂: nanotubes vs. monolayers. Sci Rep. 2013 Oct 16;3:2961.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Villarroel A. Practical Clinical Epidemiology for the Veterinarian. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Kitanidis PK, McCarty PL, editors. Delivery and Mixing in the Subsurface: Processes and Design Principles for In Situ Remediation. New York, NY: Springer; 2012. XXX, 325 p. 70 illus., 40 illus. in color. (SERDP ESTCP Environmental Remediation Technology; vol. 4).
A chapter in an edited book
Böhm HJ, Pahr DH, Daxner T. Analytical and Numerical Methods for Modeling the Thermomechanical and Thermophysical Behavior of Microstructured Materials. In: Silberschmidt VV, editor. Computational and Experimental Mechanics of Advanced Materials. Vienna: Springer; 2010. p. 167–223. (Maier G, Salençon J, Schneider W, Schrefler B, Serafini P, editors. CISM International Centre for Mechanical Sciences).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for F1000Research.

Blog post
Andrew E. Mysterious new Virus Could be Causing Paralysis in Children in the U.S.A [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Economies Available Through Consolidating or Collocating Government Land-Based, High Frequency Communications Facilities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976 Jul. Report No.: LCD-76-113.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Snyder QZ. From anarchy to confederacy: A theory of international politics [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yablonsky L. The Hebrew School. New York Times. 2008 Nov 16;M280.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleF1000Research
ISSN (online)2046-1402

Other styles