How to format your references using the F1000Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for F1000Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goldston D. Technical advice. Nature. 2007 Jul 12;448(7150):119.
A journal article with 2 authors
Altshuler D, Clark AG. Genetics. Harvesting medical information from the human family tree. Science. 2005 Feb 18;307(5712):1052–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Popovych OV, Yanchuk S, Tass PA. Self-organized noise resistance of oscillatory neural networks with spike timing-dependent plasticity. Sci Rep. 2013 Oct 11;3:2926.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Inoue K, Tsutsui H, Akatsu H, Hashizume Y, Matsukawa N, Yamamoto T, et al. Metabolic profiling of Alzheimer’s disease brains. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2364.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hopkins D. Reading Paradise Lost. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Beck-Nielsen H, editor. The Metabolic Syndrome: Pharmacology and Clinical Aspects. Vienna: Springer; 2013. XI, 229 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Lee L, Wong PK. Entrepreneurship Education—A Compendium of Related Issues. In: Parker S, editor. The Life Cycle of Entrepreneurial Ventures. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2006. p. 79–105. (International Handbook Series on Entrepreneurship).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for F1000Research.

Blog post
Andrew E. Should You Rely On First Instincts When Answering A Multiple Choice Exam? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Farmers Home Administration’s Computer-Based Unified Management Information System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1980 Jul. Report No.: 112851.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jordan VS. A Mixed Methodology Exploration of White Female Pre-Service Teachers’ Discussions of Race and Gender through Presentations of Counternarratives in Children’s Literature Books [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Justices Refuse to Hear Case Of Condemned Virginia Man. New York Times. 2005 Oct 4;A25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleF1000Research
ISSN (online)2046-1402

Other styles