How to format your references using the F1000Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for F1000Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bohannon J. Happy 300th Birthday, Linnaeus. Science. 2007 Nov 2;318(5851):752.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kruse E, Agol E. KOI-3278: a self-lensing binary star system. Science. 2014 Apr 18;344(6181):275–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kogan A, Amasha S, Kastner MA. Photon-induced Kondo satellites in a single-electron transistor. Science. 2004 May 28;304(5675):1293–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Maunakea AK, Nagarajan RP, Bilenky M, Ballinger TJ, D’Souza C, Fouse SD, et al. Conserved role of intragenic DNA methylation in regulating alternative promoters. Nature. 2010 Jul 8;466(7303):253–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Labadie N, Prins C, Prodhon C. Metaheuristics for Vehicle Routing Problems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Hobbs M, Goscinski AM, Zhou W, editors. Distributed and Parallel Computing: 6th International Conference on Algorithms and Architectures for Parallel Processing, ICA3PP, Melbourne, Australia, October 2-3, 2005. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005. XIV, 452 p. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 3719).
A chapter in an edited book
Dearricott O. Lectures on n-Sasakian Manifolds. In: Galaz-García F, Kennard L, Searle C, Weingart G, Ziller W, editors. Geometry of Manifolds with Non-negative Sectional Curvature: Editors: Rafael Herrera, Luis Hernández-Lamoneda. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 57–109. (Lecture Notes in Mathematics).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for F1000Research.

Blog post
Davis J. Bizarre Caterpillar Shoots Tentacles From Its Back [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transportation for Older Adults: Measuring Results Could Help Determine If Coordination Efforts Improve Mobility. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014 Dec. Report No.: GAO-15-158.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Maddox AL. Secondary Structure Analysis of the C-Terminus of Gα-Interacting Vesicle Associated Protein Using Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron J. In a Move Away From Tradition, Cremations Increase. New York Times. 2017 Aug 10;A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleF1000Research
ISSN (online)2046-1402

Other styles