How to format your references using the F1000Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for F1000Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reichhardt T. NASA review leaves projects on launch pad. National Aeronautics & Space Administration. Nature. 2000 Feb 10;403(6770):583.
A journal article with 2 authors
Piketty T, Saez E. Inequality in the long run. Science. 2014 May 23;344(6186):838–43.
A journal article with 3 authors
DasGupta S, Ferreira CH, Miesenböck G. FoxP influences the speed and accuracy of a perceptual decision in Drosophila. Science. 2014 May 23;344(6186):901–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Furuike S, Hossain MD, Maki Y, Adachi K, Suzuki T, Kohori A, et al. Axle-less F1-ATPase rotates in the correct direction. Science. 2008 Feb 15;319(5865):955–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cahill TH. Low Impact Development and Sustainable Stormwater Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Chen SJ. IQ CALIBRATION TECHNIQUES FOR CMOS RADIO TRANSCEIVERS. Hsieh YH, editor. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006. XIX, 89 p. (Analog Circuits and Signal Processing).
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang Y, Guo D. System of Time-Varying Linear Equations. In: Guo D, editor. Zhang Functions and Various Models. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2015. p. 49–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for F1000Research.

Blog post
Andrew E. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2013 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Prey’s Eye View of Eagle Flight. Available from:’s-eye-view-eagle-flight/


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Administration of Federal Support of Shore Facilities and Vessels for Research Activities at Oceanographic Institutions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1970 Sep. Report No.: B-169941.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lim RHJ. A stylistic analysis of and performance suggestions for Robert Muczynski’s Second Piano Sonata, Opus 22 [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt LF. Mutiny in the Harbor: One Ship Too Many. New York Times. 2006 Jun 4;14NJ6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleF1000Research
ISSN (online)2046-1402

Other styles