How to format your references using the Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Peto J. Cancer epidemiology in the last century and the next decade. Nature. 2001 May 17;411(6835):390–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Narayan R, Quataert E. Black hole accretion. Science. 2005 Jan 7;307(5706):77–80.
A journal article with 3 authors
Karlsson MP, Tervo DGR, Karpova AY. Network resets in medial prefrontal cortex mark the onset of behavioral uncertainty. Science. 2012 Oct 5;338(6103):135–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Pearcy M, Aron S, Doums C, Keller L. Conditional use of sex and parthenogenesis for worker and queen production in ants. Science. 2004 Dec 3;306(5702):1780–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Quinquis A. Digital Signal Processing using MATLAB®. London, UK: ISTE; 2008.
An edited book
Pate L, Wankel C, editors. Emerging Research Directions in Social Entrepreneurship. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014. XV, 231 p. 18 illus. (Advances in Business Ethics Research, A Journal of Business Ethics Book Series; vol. 5).
A chapter in an edited book
Hajibagheri A, Sukthankar G, Lakkaraju K. A Holistic Approach for Link Prediction in Multiplex Networks. In: Spiro E, Ahn YY, editors. Social Informatics: 8th International Conference, SocInfo 2016, Bellevue, WA, USA, November 11-14, 2016, Proceedings, Part II. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 55–70. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal.

Blog post
Andrew E. When Science Gets Ugly – The Story Of Philipp Lenard And Albert Einstein. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Manned Undersea Science and Technology Needs Focus and Direction. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977 Jul. Report No.: PSAD-77-130.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
De los Santos E. Increasing the psychological well-being of undocumented Latino youth students in California: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J. Tech Firms Make Push Toward TV. New York Times. 2017 Aug 21;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titlePuerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
ISSN (print)0738-0658

Other styles