How to format your references using the Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lyon BE. Egg recognition and counting reduce costs of avian conspecific brood parasitism. Nature. 2003 Apr 3;422(6931):495–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hulleman CS, Harackiewicz JM. Promoting interest and performance in high school science classes. Science. 2009 Dec 4;326(5958):1410–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dickie IA, Hurst JM, Bellingham PJ. Comment on “Conspecific negative density dependence and forest diversity.” Science. 2012 Oct 26;338(6106):469; author reply 469.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Gray WM, Kepinski S, Rouse D, Leyser O, Estelle M. Auxin regulates SCF(TIR1)-dependent degradation of AUX/IAA proteins. Nature. 2001 Nov 15;414(6861):271–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rao KR, Bojkovic ZS, Milovanovic DA. Introduction to Multimedia Communications. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Laghi A. La cardio-TC. Rengo M, editor. Milano: Springer; 2012. X, 69 pagg. (Springer ABC; vol. 4).
A chapter in an edited book
Korhonen K. Adopting Agile Practices in Teams with No Direct Programming Responsibility – A Case Study. In: Caivano D, Oivo M, Baldassarre MT, Visaggio G, editors. Product-Focused Software Process Improvement: 12th International Conference, PROFES 2011, Torre Canne, Italy, June 20-22, 2011 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 30–43. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal.

Blog post
Fang J. How Can We Tell What Color An Extinct Animal Was? IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: Further Improvements Needed to identify and Oversee Poorly Planned and Performing Projects. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007 Sep. Report No.: GAO-07-1211T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Krometis L-AH. Microbial partitioning in urban stormwaters [Doctoral dissertation]. [Chapel Hill, NC]: University of North Carolina; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum MM. Kelly Presses Conspiracy Theorist in Edited Interview. New York Times. 2017 Jun 19;B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titlePuerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
ISSN (print)0738-0658

Other styles