How to format your references using the Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Odling-Smee L. Biofuels bandwagon hits a rut. Nature. 2007 Mar 29;446(7135):483.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang K, Stiefel EI. Toward separation and purification of olefins using dithiolene complexes: an electrochemical approach. Science. 2001 Jan 5;291(5501):106–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wood RA, Grotzinger JP, Dickson JAD. Proterozoic modular biomineralized metazoan from the Nama Group, Namibia. Science. 2002 Jun 28;296(5577):2383–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Barz S, Kassal I, Ringbauer M, Lipp YO, Dakić B, Aspuru-Guzik A, et al. A two-qubit photonic quantum processor and its application to solving systems of linear equations. Sci Rep. 2014 Aug 19;4:6115.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bouvier J-M, Campanella OH. Extrusion Processing Technology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Bandyopadhyay B. Sliding Mode Control Using Novel Sliding Surfaces. Deepak F, Kim K-S, editors. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. XVI, 144 p. 35 illus. (Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences; vol. 392).
A chapter in an edited book
Punter RA, Glas CAW, Meelissen MRM. Relation Between Parental Involvement and Student Achievement in PIRLS-2011. In: Glas CAW, Meelissen MRM, editors. Psychometric Framework for Modeling Parental Involvement and Reading Literacy. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 77–87. (IEA Research for Education).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal.

Blog post
Andrew E. Hybrid Species Are On The March – With The Help Of Humans [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Propriety of the City Edges Grant Awarded to the Suburban Action Institute. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1973 Sep. Report No.: B-158811.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Roy R. “Jagoron: Awakening” to Gender in Non Governmental Organizations in Contemporary Bengal [Doctoral dissertation]. [Columbus, OH]: Ohio State University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper M. An Orchestra Tuned to Thrive. New York Times. 2017 Jun 15;AR12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titlePuerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
ISSN (print)0738-0658

Other styles