How to format your references using the Psychotherapy Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychotherapy Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
MacFadyen, A. (2004). Astronomy. Long gamma-ray bursts. Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5654), 45–46.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vollrath, F., & Knight, D. P. (2001). Liquid crystalline spinning of spider silk. Nature, 410(6828), 541–548.
A journal article with 3 authors
Finnegan, N. J., Schumer, R., & Finnegan, S. (2014). A signature of transience in bedrock river incision rates over timescales of 10(4)-10(7) years. Nature, 505(7483), 391–394.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhu, Z., Zheng, T., Homer, R. J., Kim, Y.-K., Chen, N. Y., Cohn, L., Hamid, Q., & Elias, J. A. (2004). Acidic mammalian chitinase in asthmatic Th2 inflammation and IL-13 pathway activation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5677), 1678–1682.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yu, J., & Tao, D. (2013). Modern Machine Learning Techniques and Their Applications in Cartoon Animation Research. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kreutzer, R. T. (2015). Digital Darwinism: Branding and Business Models in Jeopardy (K.-H. Land, Ed.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Lin, Z., & Bai, Z. (2011). Estimates of the Difference of Two Distribution Functions. In Z. Bai (Ed.), Probability Inequalities (pp. 29–36). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychotherapy Research.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016, November 9). In Defence Of Racer Snakes – The Demons Of Planet Earth II (They’re Only After A Meal). IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2011). Rail Transit: Reliability of FTA’s Rail Accident Database (GAO-11-217R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nambiar, V. R. (2012). A Grounded Theory Study on Business Excellence Models in the United Arab Emirates [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (2011, April 15). Russia: Jehovah’s Witness Acquitted of Incitement. New York Times, A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (MacFadyen, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (MacFadyen, 2004; Vollrath & Knight, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vollrath & Knight, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Finnegan et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Zhu et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychotherapy Research
AbbreviationPsychother. Res.
ISSN (print)1050-3307
ISSN (online)1468-4381
ScopeClinical Psychology

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