How to format your references using the Psychotherapy Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychotherapy Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Westervelt, R. M. (2008). Applied physics. Graphene nanoelectronics. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5874), 324–325.
A journal article with 2 authors
Turecek, R., & Trussell, L. O. (2001). Presynaptic glycine receptors enhance transmitter release at a mammalian central synapse. Nature, 411(6837), 587–590.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sato, T., Atomi, H., & Imanaka, T. (2007). Archaeal type III RuBisCOs function in a pathway for AMP metabolism. Science (New York, N.Y.), 315(5814), 1003–1006.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Moreno-Mayar, J. V., Potter, B. A., Vinner, L., Steinrücken, M., Rasmussen, S., Terhorst, J., Kamm, J. A., Albrechtsen, A., Malaspinas, A.-S., Sikora, M., Reuther, J. D., Irish, J. D., Malhi, R. S., Orlando, L., Song, Y. S., Nielsen, R., Meltzer, D. J., & Willerslev, E. (2018). Terminal Pleistocene Alaskan genome reveals first founding population of Native Americans. Nature, 553(7687), 203–207.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kuzmeski, M. (2009). The Connectors. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ablayev, F., & Mayr, E. W. (Eds.). (2010). Computer Science – Theory and Applications: 5th International Computer Science Symposium in Russia, CSR 2010, Kazan, Russia, June 16-20, 2010. Proceedings (Vol. 6072). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Fancy, D. (2015). Sustainability, Immanence and the Monstrous in Caryl Hurchill’s the Skriker. In R. C. Mitchell & S. A. Moore (Eds.), Planetary Praxis & Pedagogy: Transdisciplinary Approaches to Environmental Sustainability (pp. 95–106). SensePublishers.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychotherapy Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, July 31). This Basketball Is Thrown From Above The Clouds And The Magnus Effect Makes It Do Something Pretty Awesome. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1994). Electronic Surveillance (RCED-95-54R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cashion, A. T. (2010). Exploring Dielectric Absorption: Data Collection System Development [Doctoral dissertation]. University of North Carolina.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. (2017, May 5). A Household In Thrall To Tales Told. New York Times, C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Westervelt, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Turecek & Trussell, 2001; Westervelt, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Turecek & Trussell, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Sato et al., 2007)
  • 6 or more authors: (Moreno-Mayar et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychotherapy Research
AbbreviationPsychother. Res.
ISSN (print)1050-3307
ISSN (online)1468-4381
ScopeClinical Psychology

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