How to format your references using the Psychotherapy Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychotherapy Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hardebeck, J. L. (2015). Stress orientations in subduction zones and the strength of subduction megathrust faults. Science (New York, N.Y.), 349(6253), 1213–1216.
A journal article with 2 authors
Falk, A., & Heckman, J. J. (2009). Lab experiments are a major source of knowledge in the social sciences. Science (New York, N.Y.), 326(5952), 535–538.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schaller, M. F., Wright, J. D., & Kent, D. V. (2011). Atmospheric PCO₂ perturbations associated with the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province. Science (New York, N.Y.), 331(6023), 1404–1409.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Bethlem, H. L., Berden, G., Crompvoets, F. M., Jongma, R. T., van Roij AJ, & Meijer, G. (2000). Electrostatic trapping of ammonia molecules. Nature, 406(6795), 491–494.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Aasma, A., Dutta, H., & Natarajan, P. N. (2017). An Introductory Course in Summability Theory. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Sakkas, D. (2014). Gamete and Embryo Selection: Genomics, Metabolomics and Morphological Assessment (M. G. Katz-Jaffe & C. E. Sueldo, Eds.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Koranyi, A. (2011). Holomorphic and Harmonic Functions on Bounded Symmetric Domains. In E. Vesentini (Ed.), Geometry of Homogeneous Bounded Domains (pp. 125–197). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychotherapy Research.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2017, April 5). It’s Now Possible To Combine Lasers Like In The Death Star. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2003). Technology Transfer: Agencies’ Rights to Federally Sponsored Biomedical Inventions (GAO-03-536). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kratchman, J. (2017). Predicting Chronic Non-Cancer Toxicity Levels from Short-Term Toxicity Data [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. (2017, September 7). School Life. New York Times, C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hardebeck, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Falk & Heckman, 2009; Hardebeck, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Falk & Heckman, 2009)
  • Three authors: (Schaller et al., 2011)
  • 6 or more authors: (Bethlem et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychotherapy Research
AbbreviationPsychother. Res.
ISSN (print)1050-3307
ISSN (online)1468-4381
ScopeClinical Psychology

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