How to format your references using the Psychotherapy Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychotherapy Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McGaugh, S. (2007). Astronomy. Seeing through dark matter. Science (New York, N.Y.), 317(5838), 607–608.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jones, J. H., & Handcock, M. S. (2003). Social networks: Sexual contacts and epidemic thresholds. Nature, 423(6940), 605–606; discussion 606.
A journal article with 3 authors
Anderson, D. M., Overpeck, J. T., & Gupta, A. K. (2002). Increase in the Asian southwest monsoon during the past four centuries. Science (New York, N.Y.), 297(5581), 596–599.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Dixit, N. M., Layden-Almer, J. E., Layden, T. J., & Perelson, A. S. (2004). Modelling how ribavirin improves interferon response rates in hepatitis C virus infection. Nature, 432(7019), 922–924.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Omura, Y., Mallik, A., & Matsuo, N. (2016). MOS Devices for Low-Voltage and Low-Energy Applications. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd.
An edited book
Garcia, P. J. V., & Ferreira, J. M. (Eds.). (2010). Jets from Young Stars IV: From Models to Observations and Experiments (Vol. 793). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Herrera, A. (2015). Archaeology and Development: Ethics of a Fateful Relationship. In A. Haber & N. Shepherd (Eds.), After Ethics: Ancestral Voices and Post-Disciplinary Worlds in Archaeology (pp. 39–53). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychotherapy Research.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, November 16). France To Shut Down All Its Coal Power Plants By 2023. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1974). DOD’s Full-Time, Fully Funded Graduate and Undergraduate Education Programs (No. B-175773). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pham, M. M.-X. (2017). Flymed Pharmacy, LLC, Home Delivery Services a Business Plan (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (2003, November 27). Bolshoi Ballet Told to Rehire The Ballerina It Dismissed. New York Times, p. E10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McGaugh, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Jones & Handcock, 2003; McGaugh, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jones & Handcock, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Anderson, Overpeck, & Gupta, 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Dixit, Layden-Almer, Layden, & Perelson, 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychotherapy Research
AbbreviationPsychother. Res.
ISSN (print)1050-3307
ISSN (online)1468-4381
ScopeClinical Psychology

Other styles