How to format your references using the Psychotherapy Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychotherapy Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Byrne, N. (2004). Future outlook. Nature, 429(6991 Suppl), 25.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rappuoli, R., & Covacci, A. (2003). Reverse vaccinology and genomics. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5645), 602.
A journal article with 3 authors
Woodward, J. J., Iavarone, A. T., & Portnoy, D. A. (2010). c-di-AMP secreted by intracellular Listeria monocytogenes activates a host type I interferon response. Science (New York, N.Y.), 328(5986), 1703–1705.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhou, D., Tan, R. J., Zhou, L., Li, Y., & Liu, Y. (2013). Kidney tubular β-catenin signaling controls interstitial fibroblast fate via epithelial-mesenchymal communication. Scientific Reports, 3, 1878.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Quinn, J. F. (2013). Dementia. John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Dengel, A. R., Berns, K., Breuel, T. M., Bomarius, F., & Roth-Berghofer, T. R. (Eds.). (2008). KI 2008: Advances in Artificial Intelligence: 31st Annual German Conference on AI, KI 2008, Kaiserslautern, Germany, September 23-26, 2008. Proceedings (Vol. 5243). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Arnon, I., Cottrill, J., Dubinsky, E., Oktaç, A., Fuentes, S. R., Trigueros, M., & Weller, K. (2014). The Teaching of Mathematics Using APOS Theory. In J. Cottrill, E. Dubinsky, A. Oktaç, S. Roa Fuentes, M. Trigueros, & K. Weller (Eds.), APOS Theory: A Framework for Research and Curriculum Development in Mathematics Education (pp. 57–91). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychotherapy Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, June 11). How To Guard Your Career Against Rapid Technological Change. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Head Start Programs: Participant Characteristics, Services, and Funding (HEHS-98-65). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thompson, K. (2014). An Introduction to the Cox Proportional Hazards Model and Its Applications to Survival Analysis [Doctoral dissertation]. Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, S. (2002, October 15). For Pfluger, a Career of Achievement. New York Times, D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Byrne, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Byrne, 2004; Rappuoli & Covacci, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rappuoli & Covacci, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Woodward et al., 2010)
  • 6 or more authors: (Zhou et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychotherapy Research
AbbreviationPsychother. Res.
ISSN (print)1050-3307
ISSN (online)1468-4381
ScopeClinical Psychology

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