How to format your references using the Psychotherapy Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychotherapy Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fratzl, P. (2014). Applied physics: The virtues of tiling. Nature, 516(7530), 178–179.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gervais, W. M., & Norenzayan, A. (2012). Analytic thinking promotes religious disbelief. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6080), 493–496.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hedrick, T. L., Cheng, B., & Deng, X. (2009). Wingbeat time and the scaling of passive rotational damping in flapping flight. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5924), 252–255.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Thorrold, S. R., Latkoczy, C., Swart, P. K., & Jones, C. M. (2001). Natal homing in a marine fish metapopulation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 291(5502), 297–299.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Firth-Cozens, J., & Harrison, J. (2010). How to Survive in Medicine. Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Tonsberg, T. A. (2016). Understanding Leadership in Complex Systems: A Praxeological Perspective (J. S. Henderson, Ed.). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Xi, H., Lee, S., & Son, Y.-J. (2011). An Integrated Pedestrian Behavior Model Based on Extended Decision Field Theory and Social Force Model. In L. Rothrock & S. Narayanan (Eds.), Human-in-the-Loop Simulations: Methods and Practice (pp. 69–95). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychotherapy Research.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2017, March 9). The Word “Science” Has Disappeared From The EPA’s Mission Statement. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1993). Advanced Solid Rocket Motor Status (NSIAD-93-258R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rutherford, B. A. (2017). Beneficial Tensile Mean Strain Effects on the Fatigue Behavior of Superelastic NiTi [Doctoral dissertation]. Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, B. (2017, June 5). Where Gold Cloth Is the Standard. New York Times, D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fratzl, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Fratzl, 2014; Gervais & Norenzayan, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gervais & Norenzayan, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Hedrick et al., 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Thorrold et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychotherapy Research
AbbreviationPsychother. Res.
ISSN (print)1050-3307
ISSN (online)1468-4381
ScopeClinical Psychology

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