How to format your references using the Applied Informatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Informatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Browne J (2008) Birthdays to remember. Nature 456:324–325
A journal article with 2 authors
Iimura T, Pourquié O (2006) Collinear activation of Hoxb genes during gastrulation is linked to mesoderm cell ingression. Nature 442:568–571
A journal article with 3 authors
Fenn KM, Nusbaum HC, Margoliash D (2003) Consolidation during sleep of perceptual learning of spoken language. Nature 425:614–616
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Fabbri F, Rotunno E, Lazzarini L, et al (2014) Visible and infra-red light emission in boron-doped wurtzite silicon nanowires. Sci Rep 4:3603

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hochberg Z (2011) Evo-Devo of Child Growth. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Karuri K (2011) Application Analysis Tools for ASIP Design: Application Profiling and Instruction-set Customization. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Grossman L (2014) Jewish Communal Affairs. In: Dashefsky A, Sheskin I (eds) American Jewish Year Book 2013: The Annual Record of the North American Jewish Communities. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 165–199

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Informatics.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Aircrafts That Can Be Controlled By Thought. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2001) HUD Information Systems: Immature Software Acquisition Capability Increases Project Risks. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thom RC (2017) Digital Martyrs and Shadowless Assailants: The Projective Shadow’s Emergence in Cyberspace. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hiked TFP, Contributed to This Article:, Beedy J, et al (1985) BLISTERS AND BLISS ON A FROSTY BEACH. New York Times 11LI28

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Browne 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Iimura and Pourquié 2006; Browne 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Iimura and Pourquié 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Fabbri et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Informatics
AbbreviationAppl. Inform. (Berl)
ISSN (online)2196-0089

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