How to format your references using the Applied Informatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Informatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sperandio V (2012) Microbiology. Virulence or competition? Science 336:1238–1239
A journal article with 2 authors
Jing J, Wu L-A (2013) Control of decoherence with no control. Sci Rep 3:2746
A journal article with 3 authors
Budd GE, Butterfield NJ, Jensen S (2001) Crustaceans and the “Cambrian explosion.” Science 294:2047
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Deville P, Wang D, Sinatra R, et al (2014) Career on the move: geography, stratification, and scientific impact. Sci Rep 4:4770

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Baldwin CJ (2015) The 10 Principles of Food Industry Sustainability. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Tan T, Wang G, Wang S, et al (eds) (2016) Advances in Image and Graphics Technologies: 11th Chinese Conference, IGTA 2016, Beijing, China, July 8-9, 2016, Proceedings. Springer, Singapore
A chapter in an edited book
Sharma S, Shukla KP, Singh V, et al (2013) Plant–Microbe Symbiosis: Perspectives and Applications. In: Arora NK (ed) Plant Microbe Symbiosis: Fundamentals and Advances. Springer India, New Delhi, pp 119–145

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Informatics.

Blog post
Luntz S (2016) Birds May Be Protecting Atlanta From West Nile Virus. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1972) Drug Abuse Control Program Activities in the Philippines. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Salie A (2008) Servant-minded leadership and work satisfaction in Islamic organizations: A correlational mixed study. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander S (2000) Powell Leads Syracuse; Princeton Survives. New York Times 88

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sperandio 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Sperandio 2012; Jing and Wu 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jing and Wu 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Deville et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Informatics
AbbreviationAppl. Inform. (Berl)
ISSN (online)2196-0089

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