How to format your references using the Applied Informatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Informatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Maquet P (2001) The role of sleep in learning and memory. Science 294:1048–1052
A journal article with 2 authors
Sosdian S, Rosenthal Y (2009) Deep-sea temperature and ice volume changes across the Pliocene-Pleistocene climate transitions. Science 325:306–310
A journal article with 3 authors
Callender C, Quinn I, Tymoczko D (2008) Generalized voice-leading spaces. Science 320:346–348
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Li S-Z, Song Y, Zhang H-H, et al (2014) UbcH10 overexpression increases carcinogenesis and blocks ALLN susceptibility in colorectal cancer. Sci Rep 4:6910

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bragg SM (2009) Controllership. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Sanches JM, Micó L, Cardoso JS (eds) (2013) Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis: 6th Iberian Conference, IbPRIA 2013, Funchal, Madeira, Portugal, June 5-7, 2013. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Kim SH, Mun Y, Choi HI (2008) Improved Curvature Scale Space Based on Image Retrieval Using Dynamic Time Warping. In: Gervasi O, Murgante B, Laganà A, et al. (eds) Computational Science and Its Applications – ICCSA 2008: International Conference, Perugia, Italy, June 30– July 3, 2008, Proceedings, Part II. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 32–42

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Informatics.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) New Genus Of Crab Discovered In A Chinese Pet Shop. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989) ADP Systems: VA Actions to Improve Management of Information Resources. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Green EI (2009) Caregiver wellness: An inquiry of health risks among frontline direct caregivers of the elderly and disabled. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L (2007) Town of Oyster Bay Seeks To Develop Waterfront Plan. New York Times 14LI2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Maquet 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Maquet 2001; Sosdian and Rosenthal 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sosdian and Rosenthal 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Informatics
AbbreviationAppl. Inform. (Berl)
ISSN (online)2196-0089

Other styles