How to format your references using the Applied Informatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Informatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Colwell RR (2009) Graduate education. Professional science master’s programs merit wider support. Science 323:1676–1677
A journal article with 2 authors
Hunt JH, Amdam GV (2005) Bivoltinism as an antecedent to eusociality in the paper wasp genus Polistes. Science 308:264–267
A journal article with 3 authors
Liu D, Amagai S, Bricken J (2012) Science education. Engaging teachers, scientists, and multimedia to promote learning. Science 336:1509
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Okada A, Charron F, Morin S, et al (2006) Boc is a receptor for sonic hedgehog in the guidance of commissural axons. Nature 444:369–373

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tms (2014) TMS 2014 Supplemental Proceedings. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Gussone N (2016) Calcium Stable Isotope Geochemistry. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Marsh GP (2014) Introduction (excerpts). In: Ndubisi FO (ed) The Ecological Design and Planning Reader. Island Press/Center for Resource Economics, Washington, DC, pp 25–32

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Informatics.

Blog post
Taub B (2016) Gay Termites Kill Straight Males To Steal Their Wives. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2009) Federal Research: Information on the Government’s Right to Assert Ownership Control over Federally Funded Inventions. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Crosby WO (2013) ATI v. Colorado: How the Commerce Clause Provides Guidance at the Confluence of Energy, Environmental, and Constitutional Law. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz J (2016) Forecast Hints That Hurricane Matthew Could Return. New York Times A11

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Colwell 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Hunt and Amdam 2005; Colwell 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hunt and Amdam 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Okada et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Informatics
AbbreviationAppl. Inform. (Berl)
ISSN (online)2196-0089

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