How to format your references using the Applied Informatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Applied Informatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
DeWeerdt S (2013) Genetics: written in blood. Nature 498:S4-6
A journal article with 2 authors
Chen M, Yan X (2005) Comment on “Grain boundary-mediated plasticity in nanocrystalline nickel.” Science 308:356; author reply 356
A journal article with 3 authors
Morens DM, Folkers GK, Fauci AS (2004) The challenge of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Nature 430:242–249
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Changela A, Chen K, Xue Y, et al (2003) Molecular basis of metal-ion selectivity and zeptomolar sensitivity by CueR. Science 301:1383–1387

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rossiter A (2008) Professional Excellence. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Sadasivuni KK, Ponnamma D, Kim J, Thomas S (eds) (2015) Graphene-Based Polymer Nanocomposites in Electronics. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Baez Martin MM, Morales Chacón LM, Cabrera Abreu I (2015) Autism Spectrum Disorder. A Clinical Neurophysiology Approach II. In: Robinson-Agramonte M de LA (ed) Translational Approaches to Autism Spectrum Disorder. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 85–94

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Applied Informatics.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) First Complete Mapping Of Human Proteome Discovers 193 New Proteins. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1987) Attack Warning: ADP and Communication Modernization Programs for Warning and Assessment. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cherukuri H (2014) 1, 3-Dipolar Reaction of gem-Dicyanoepoxide with a Fluoro-Olefin. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M (2012) Running the World With Eyes Wide Open. New York Times B10

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (DeWeerdt 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Chen and Yan 2005; DeWeerdt 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chen and Yan 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Changela et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleApplied Informatics
AbbreviationAppl. Inform. (Berl)
ISSN (online)2196-0089

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