How to format your references using the European Journal of Ageing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Ageing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Powell K (2012) Molecular oncology: The positive in the negative. Nature 485:S52-3
A journal article with 2 authors
Tan S, Lü J (2014) Characterizing the effect of population heterogeneity on evolutionary dynamics on complex networks. Sci Rep 4:5034
A journal article with 3 authors
Ravishankara AR, Daniel JS, Portmann RW (2009) Nitrous oxide (N2O): the dominant ozone-depleting substance emitted in the 21st century. Science 326:123–125
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Yeh C, Shimabukuro F, Stanton P, et al (2000) Communication at millimetre-submillimetre wavelengths using a ceramic ribbon. Nature 404:584–588

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hanby M (2013) No God, No Science? Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford
An edited book
Douglass JA (ed) (2016) The New Flagship University: Changing the Paradigm from Global Ranking to National Relevancy. Palgrave Macmillan US, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Mandl C, Hauser M, Mandl H (2013) Maxims of the Co-creative Meeting. In: Hauser M, Mandl H (eds) The Co-creative Meeting: Practicing Consensual Effectivity in Organizations. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 29–39

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Ageing.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) National Geographic’s Nature Photographer Of The Year Winners Are As Awesome As Ever. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994) NASA Procurement: Challenges Remain in Implementing Improvement Reforms. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Davidson WB (2010) High school athletics and the “whole adolescent”: A case study of three urban high schools. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M (1993) Words And Deeds; The Guinier Affair Aggravates Clinton’s Credibility Problem. New York Times 41

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Powell 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Powell 2012; Tan and Lü 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tan and Lü 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Yeh et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Ageing
AbbreviationEur. J. Ageing
ISSN (print)1613-9372
ISSN (online)1613-9380
ScopeGeriatrics and Gerontology
Health(social science)

Other styles