How to format your references using the European Journal of Ageing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Ageing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zschokke S (2003) Palaeontology: spider-web silk from the Early Cretaceous. Nature 424:636–637
A journal article with 2 authors
Cho US, Xu W (2007) Crystal structure of a protein phosphatase 2A heterotrimeric holoenzyme. Nature 445:53–57
A journal article with 3 authors
Dangl JL, Horvath DM, Staskawicz BJ (2013) Pivoting the plant immune system from dissection to deployment. Science 341:746–751
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Tan W, Sun Y, Chen H, Shen S-Q (2014) Photonic simulation of topological excitations in metamaterials. Sci Rep 4:3842

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Trimble MR, George MS (2010) Biological Psychiatry. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Dieing T, Hollricher O, Toporski J (eds) (2011) Confocal Raman Microscopy. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Alper AB (2014) Pathogenesis of Diabetic Nephropathy: Hemodynamic Alterations/Renin Angiotensin System. In: Lerma EV, Batuman V (eds) Diabetes and Kidney Disease. Springer, New York, NY, pp 29–38

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Ageing.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) News About The Success Of A New Ebola Vaccine May Be Too Good To Be True. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2016) Hazardous Materials Transportation: Better Guidance and Planning Could Enhance DOT’s Explosives Classification Oversight. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bennett AL (2019) An Empirical Longitudinal Analysis of Agile Methodologies and Firm Financial Performance. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dominus S (2015) Refusing My Religion. New York Times BR10

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zschokke 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Zschokke 2003; Cho and Xu 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cho and Xu 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Tan et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Ageing
AbbreviationEur. J. Ageing
ISSN (print)1613-9372
ISSN (online)1613-9380
ScopeGeriatrics and Gerontology
Health(social science)

Other styles