How to format your references using the Psychotherapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychotherapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rees, M. J. (2000). Piecing together the biggest puzzle of all. Science (New York, N.Y.), 290(5498), 1919–1925.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhong, C.-B., & Liljenquist, K. (2006). Washing away your sins: threatened morality and physical cleansing. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5792), 1451–1452.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fuller, P. M., Lu, J., & Saper, C. B. (2008). Differential rescue of light- and food-entrainable circadian rhythms. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5879), 1074–1077.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Crabbe, L., Verdun, R. E., Haggblom, C. I., & Karlseder, J. (2004). Defective telomere lagging strand synthesis in cells lacking WRN helicase activity. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5703), 1951–1953.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Speight, J. G. (2013). Coal-Fired Power Generation Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Sokolova, M. V. (2012). Decision Making in Complex Systems: The DeciMaS Agent-based Interdisciplinary Framework Approach (A. Fernández Caballero, Ed.; Vol. 30). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ciardiello, F., & De Vita, F. (2005). Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors in cancer therapy. In P. L. Herrling, A. Matter, & R. M. Schultz (Eds.), Advances in Targeted Cancer Therapy (pp. 93–115). Birkhäuser.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychotherapy.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, July 21). Does Size Really Matter? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1973). Expenditures for Telephone Services and Adequacy of Controls Over Such Services (B-118638). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Olson, C. R. (2017). Population genetic structure of two abyssal grenadiers of the north Atlantic and northeastern Pacific oceans [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kolomatsky, M. (2017, May 19). One Subway Stop Changes the Rent. New York Times, RE2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rees, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Rees, 2000; Zhong & Liljenquist, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zhong & Liljenquist, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Fuller et al., 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Crabbe et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychotherapy
AbbreviationPsychotherapy (Chic.)
ISSN (print)0033-3204
ISSN (online)1939-1536
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Clinical Psychology

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