How to format your references using the Psychotherapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychotherapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Moore, P. (2005). Photocopiers for DNA. Nature, 435(7039), 237.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hood, L., & Galas, D. (2003). The digital code of DNA. Nature, 421(6921), 444–448.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wookey, J., Kendall, J.-M., & Barruol, G. (2002). Mid-mantle deformation inferred from seismic anisotropy. Nature, 415(6873), 777–780.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Jasmin, L., Rabkin, S. D., Granato, A., Boudah, A., & Ohara, P. T. (2003). Analgesia and hyperalgesia from GABA-mediated modulation of the cerebral cortex. Nature, 424(6946), 316–320.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Millon, T., & Grossman, S. (2007). Moderating Severe Personality Disorders. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Smyth, J. (2014). The Socially Just School: Making Space for Youth to Speak Back. (B. Down & P. McInerney, Eds.) (Vol. 29). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Clair, R. P. (2013). Wednesday, August 11, 2010—West Lafayette, IN. In R. P. Clair (Ed.), Zombie Seed and the Butterfly Blues: A Case of Social Justice (pp. 25–28). Rotterdam: SensePublishers.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychotherapy.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, August 2). Why Have Loads Of Corpse Flowers Been Releasing Their Stink Recently? Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2010). Transit Rail: Potential Rail Car Cost-Saving Strategies Exist (No. GAO-10-730). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Freund, S. H. (2013). The Relationship of Academic Courses to Skills Required Of Automobile Repair Technicians (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. (1993, January 3). Vacation Ending, Clinton Plans to Fill More Jobs. New York Times, p. 119.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Moore, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Hood & Galas, 2003; Moore, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hood & Galas, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Wookey, Kendall, & Barruol, 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Jasmin, Rabkin, Granato, Boudah, & Ohara, 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychotherapy
AbbreviationPsychotherapy (Chic.)
ISSN (print)0033-3204
ISSN (online)1939-1536
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Clinical Psychology

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