How to format your references using the Psychotherapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychotherapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Linsky, J. L. (2011). Astronomy. Voyagers of discovery. Science (New York, N.Y.), 334(6063), 1647–1648.
A journal article with 2 authors
Papke, R. T., & Gogarten, J. P. (2012). Ecology. How bacterial lineages emerge. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6077), 45–46.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lu, D., Searles, M. A., & Klug, A. (2003). Crystal structure of a zinc-finger-RNA complex reveals two modes of molecular recognition. Nature, 426(6962), 96–100.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhang, Y., Zuo, T., Cheng, Y., & Liaw, P. K. (2013). High-entropy alloys with high saturation magnetization, electrical resistivity, and malleability. Scientific Reports, 3, 1455.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Eynon, J. (2013). The Design Manager’s Handbook. Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Navarro-Prieto, R., & Vidal, J. L. (Eds.). (2006). HCI related papers of Interacción 2004. Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Martín-Hervás, C. (2015). Imaging of the Hemophilic Joints. In E. C. Rodríguez-Merchán (Ed.), Joint Surgery in the Adult Patient with Hemophilia (pp. 29–36). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychotherapy.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2017, May 8). Gluten-Sensitive People Could Avoid Symptoms With This Enzyme Tablet. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2017). Aviation Security: TSA Has Made Progress Implementing Requirements in the Aviation Security Act of 2016 (GAO-17-662). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
E, C.-C. (2014). The syntax of comparative correlatives in Mandarin Chinese [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bray, C. (2017, July 4). Payments Firm In Britain Draws 2 Bids For Takeover. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Linsky, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Linsky, 2011; Papke & Gogarten, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Papke & Gogarten, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Lu et al., 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Zhang et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychotherapy
AbbreviationPsychotherapy (Chic.)
ISSN (print)0033-3204
ISSN (online)1939-1536
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Clinical Psychology

Other styles