How to format your references using the Psychotherapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychotherapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lawler, A. (2000). ASIAN-AMERICAN SCIENTISTS: Harbinger of a Litigious Future? Science (New York, N.Y.), 290(5494), 1076.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sabado, R. L., & Bhardwaj, N. (2015). Cancer immunotherapy: dendritic-cell vaccines on the move. Nature, 519(7543), 300–301.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chien, K. R., Moretti, A., & Laugwitz, K.-L. (2004). Development. ES cells to the rescue. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5694), 239–240.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Irvine, D. V., Zaratiegui, M., Tolia, N. H., Goto, D. B., Chitwood, D. H., Vaughn, M. W., Joshua-Tor, L., & Martienssen, R. A. (2006). Argonaute slicing is required for heterochromatic silencing and spreading. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5790), 1134–1137.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wiedenmannott, W. (2016). Industrielle Wasseraufbereitung. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Hrycay, E. G., & Bandiera, S. M. (Eds.). (2015). Monooxygenase, Peroxidase and Peroxygenase Properties and Mechanisms of Cytochrome P450 (Vol. 851). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Antoldi, F., Cerrato, D., & Depperu, D. (2011). Empirical Analysis of Nine Export Consortia of SMEs in Morocco, Tunisia, Peru and Uruguay. In D. Cerrato & D. Depperu (Eds.), Export Consortia in Developing Countries: Successful Management of Cooperation Among SMEs (pp. 59–77). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychotherapy.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 5). Asthma Rates Falling But Eczema And Hay Fever Stand Still. What Does This Tell Us About Allergies? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1988). Federal Aviation Administration’s Advanced Automation System Investment (T-IMTEC-88-3). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kantar, L. (2010). Clinical judgment among new nursing graduates: A multiple-case study [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Woolfe, Z. (2017, May 7). Once Rebels, Now Institutions. New York Times, C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lawler, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Lawler, 2000; Sabado & Bhardwaj, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sabado & Bhardwaj, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Chien et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Irvine et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychotherapy
AbbreviationPsychotherapy (Chic.)
ISSN (print)0033-3204
ISSN (online)1939-1536
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Clinical Psychology

Other styles