How to format your references using the Psychotherapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychotherapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Melton, L. (2004). Protein arrays: proteomics in multiplex. Nature, 429(6987), 101–107.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lu, Y., & Conrad, R. (2005). In situ stable isotope probing of methanogenic archaea in the rice rhizosphere. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5737), 1088–1090.
A journal article with 3 authors
Killian, N. J., Jutras, M. J., & Buffalo, E. A. (2012). A map of visual space in the primate entorhinal cortex. Nature, 491(7426), 761–764.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Semaw, S., Simpson, S. W., Quade, J., Renne, P. R., Butler, R. F., McIntosh, W. C., Levin, N., Dominguez-Rodrigo, M., & Rogers, M. J. (2005). Early Pliocene hominids from Gona, Ethiopia. Nature, 433(7023), 301–305.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hendrick, J. (2010). Law and Ethics in Children’s Nursing. Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Sharpe, H. (2015). Embodied Relating and Transformation: Tales from Equine-Facilitated Counseling (T. Strong, Ed.; Vol. 94). SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Nafar, M., & Kalantari, S. (2016). Biomarkers in Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis. In V. B. Patel & V. R. Preedy (Eds.), Biomarkers in Kidney Disease (pp. 779–809). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychotherapy.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2016, December 21). How We Set About Mending Damaged Knees With Stem Cells. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1994). NASA Contract Management: Improving the Use of DCAA’s Auditing Services (NSIAD-94-229). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wilson, E. M. (2017). Lessons Learned from the Gender Wage Gap in the Federal Workforce: Structural Changes and Temporal Flexibility are Only the First Step to Equality [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. (2017, August 17). Whitney: Can I Be Me. New York Times, C9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Melton, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Lu & Conrad, 2005; Melton, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lu & Conrad, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Killian et al., 2012)
  • 6 or more authors: (Semaw et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychotherapy
AbbreviationPsychotherapy (Chic.)
ISSN (print)0033-3204
ISSN (online)1939-1536
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Clinical Psychology

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