How to format your references using the Psychosomatic Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychosomatic Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rohn J. Give postdocs a career, not empty promises. Nature. 2011;471:7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Surani A, Tischler J. Stem cells: a sporadic super state. Nature. 2012;487:43–45.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gertz J, Siggia ED, Cohen BA. Analysis of combinatorial cis-regulation in synthetic and genomic promoters. Nature. 2009;457:215–18.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Della M, Palmbos PL, Tseng H-M, Tonkin LM, Daley JM, Topper LM, Pitcher RS, Tomkinson AE, Wilson TE, Doherty AJ. Mycobacterial Ku and ligase proteins constitute a two-component NHEJ repair machine. Science (New York, N.Y.). 2004;306:683–85.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Godwin W. International Construction Contracts. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Shayler DJ. The Hubble Space Telescope: From Concept to Success. Harland DM, editor. New York, NY: Springer; 2016. XXIII, 414 p. 162 illus., 107 illus. in color. (Springer Praxis Books).
A chapter in an edited book
Burgess EW. The Growth of the City: An Introduction to a Research Project. In: Marzluff JM, Shulenberger E, Endlicher W, Alberti M, Bradley G, Ryan C, Simon U, ZumBrunnen C, editors. Urban Ecology: An International Perspective on the Interaction Between Humans and Nature. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2008. p. 71–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychosomatic Medicine.

Blog post
Andrews R. What Would Happen If Every Single Nuke In The World Went Off At The Same Time? IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: OMB Can Make More Effective Use of Its Investment Reviews. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005 Apr. Report No.: GAO-05-276.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rajendran N. Assessment of upper extremity strength, power, and flexibility characteristics of college-aged male and female students [Doctoral dissertation]. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lee L. Keeping Her Eyes On the Floor. New York Times. 2013;D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychosomatic Medicine
AbbreviationPsychosom. Med.
ISSN (print)0033-3174
ISSN (online)1534-7796
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Applied Psychology

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