How to format your references using the Zoology and Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Zoology and Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lenski, R. E. 2001. “Twice as Natural.” Nature 414 (6861): 255.
A journal article with 2 authors
Margolis, David, and Frederic Bushman. 2014. “HIV/AIDS. Persistence by Proliferation?” Science (New York, N.Y.) 345 (6193): 143–144.
A journal article with 3 authors
Holland, Richard A., Martin Wikelski, and David S. Wilcove. 2006. “How and Why Do Insects Migrate?” Science (New York, N.Y.) 313 (5788): 794–796.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Peng, C. Y., L. Manning, R. Albertson, and C. Q. Doe. 2000. “The Tumour-Suppressor Genes Lgl and Dlg Regulate Basal Protein Targeting in Drosophila Neuroblasts.” Nature 408 (6812): 596–600.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wernecke, Roland. 2003. Industrielle Feuchtemessung. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Wazer, David E., Douglas W. Arthur, and Frank A. Vicini, eds. 2009. Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation: Techniques and Clinical Implementation. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Vilain, Christiane. 2007. “Circular and Rectilinear Motion in the Mechanica and in the 16th Century.” In Mechanics and Natural Philosophy Before the Scientific Revolution, edited by Walter Roy Laird and Sophie Roux, 149–172. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Zoology and Ecology.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2014. “Why Vultures Don’t Get Food Poisoning.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2005. Digital Television Transition: Issues Related to an Information Campaign Regarding the Transition. GAO-05-940R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Packman, Tom. 2017. “The Effects of Eccentricity on Rectangular Hollow Structural Section Stress in Moment Connections Loaded Out-of-Plane.” Doctoral dissertation, Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cotter, Holland. 2017. “A Pooh-Bah Who Painted With Words.” New York Times, July 6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lenski 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Lenski 2001; Margolis and Bushman 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Margolis and Bushman 2014)
  • Three authors: (Holland, Wikelski, and Wilcove 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Peng et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleZoology and Ecology
AbbreviationZool. Ecol.
ISSN (print)2165-8005
ISSN (online)2165-8013
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

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