How to format your references using the Zoology and Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Zoology and Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nedergaard, Maiken. 2013. “Neuroscience. Garbage Truck of the Brain.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 340 (6140): 1529–1530.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kluwe, Christien, and Andrew D. Ellington. 2010. “Evolution. RNA GPS.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 330 (6002): 330–331.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gorb, Elena V., Julia Purtov, and Stanislav N. Gorb. 2014. “Adhesion Force Measurements on the Two Wax Layers of the Waxy Zone in Nepenthes Alata Pitchers.” Scientific Reports 4 (June): 5154.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Changela, Anita, Kui Chen, Yi Xue, Jackie Holschen, Caryn E. Outten, Thomas V. O’Halloran, and Alfonso Mondragón. 2003. “Molecular Basis of Metal-Ion Selectivity and Zeptomolar Sensitivity by CueR.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 301 (5638): 1383–1387.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Meyer, Veronika R. 2013. Pitfalls and Errors of HPLC in Pictures. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Olivetti, Lucio. 2008. Diagnostica per Immagini Dell’apparato Urogenitale. Edited by Luigi Grazioli. Milano: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bearden, Carrie E., Anderson Winkler, Katherine H. Karlsgodt, and Robert Bilder. 2016. “Cognitive Phenotypes and Endophenotypes: Concepts and Criteria.” In Neurophenotypes: Advancing Psychiatry and Neuropsychology in the “OMICS” Era, edited by Vinoth Jagaroo and Susan L. Santangelo, 61–80. Innovations in Cognitive Neuroscience. Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Zoology and Ecology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, Jonathan. 2015. “Watch The Incredible Moment Philae Landed on Comet 67P.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2015. Next Generation Air Transportation System: Improved Risk Analysis Could Strengthen FAA’s Global Interoperability Efforts. GAO-15-608. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lowe, Casey. 2009. “A Correlational Study of the Relationship between Learner Autonomy and Academic Performance.” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Paulson, Michael. 2017. “‘Lesser God’ Is Headed For a Broadway Revival.” New York Times, August 15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nedergaard 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Nedergaard 2013; Kluwe and Ellington 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kluwe and Ellington 2010)
  • Three authors: (Gorb, Purtov, and Gorb 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Changela et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleZoology and Ecology
AbbreviationZool. Ecol.
ISSN (print)2165-8005
ISSN (online)2165-8013
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

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