How to format your references using the Zoology and Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Zoology and Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nestler, E. J. 2001. “Neurobiology. Total Recall-the Memory of Addiction.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 292 (5525): 2266–2267.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hopkins, Robin, and Mark D. Rausher. 2012. “Pollinator-Mediated Selection on Flower Color Allele Drives Reinforcement.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 335 (6072): 1090–1092.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nowak, Martin A., Corina E. Tarnita, and Edward O. Wilson. 2010. “The Evolution of Eusociality.” Nature 466 (7310): 1057–1062.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
van Dam, Jorden A., Yuli V. Nazarov, Erik P. A. M. Bakkers, Silvano De Franceschi, and Leo P. Kouwenhoven. 2006. “Supercurrent Reversal in Quantum Dots.” Nature 442 (7103): 667–670.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. 1999. Guidelines for Process Safety in Batch Reaction Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Nóbrega, Clévio, and Raquel Rodriguez-López, eds. 2014. Molecular Mechanisms Underpinning the Development of Obesity. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Koncilia, Christian, Johann Eder, and Tadeusz Morzy. 2014. “Analyzing Sequential Data in Standard OLAP Architectures.” In Advances in Databases and Information Systems: 18th East European Conference, ADBIS 2014, Ohrid, Macedonia, September 7-10, 2014. Proceedings, edited by Yannis Manolopoulos, Goce Trajcevski, and Margita Kon-Popovska, 56–69. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Zoology and Ecology.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle. 2017. “These 20 Images Of Earth Over The Past 70 Years Show Why Countries Signed The Paris Agreement.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2009. Transportation Worker Identification Credential: Progress Made in Enrolling Workers and Activating Credentials but Evaluation Plan Needed to Help Inform the Implementation of Card Readers. GAO-10-43. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Das, Aniruddha. 2013. “Optimizing Symbol Timing, Frequency Spacing, and SNR Estimation for Communication Systems.” Doctoral dissertation, La Jolla, CA: University of California San Diego.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, Kelly. 2001. “Columbia Roils Neighbors Again, Now Over an Elementary School.” New York Times, March 25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nestler 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Nestler 2001; Hopkins and Rausher 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hopkins and Rausher 2012)
  • Three authors: (Nowak, Tarnita, and Wilson 2010)
  • 4 or more authors: (van Dam et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleZoology and Ecology
AbbreviationZool. Ecol.
ISSN (print)2165-8005
ISSN (online)2165-8013
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

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