How to format your references using the Zoology and Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Zoology and Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lupas, Andrei N. 2014. “Protein Design. What I Cannot Create, I Do Not Understand.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 346 (6216): 1455–1456.
A journal article with 2 authors
Marusyk, Andriy, and Kornelia Polyak. 2013. “Cancer. Cancer Cell Phenotypes, in Fifty Shades of Grey.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 339 (6119): 528–529.
A journal article with 3 authors
Komatitsch, Dimitri, Jeroen Ritsema, and Jeroen Tromp. 2002. “The Spectral-Element Method, Beowulf Computing, and Global Seismology.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 298 (5599): 1737–1742.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Pramanik, Sumit, Belinda Pingguan-Murphy, Jongman Cho, and Noor Azuan Abu Osman. 2014. “Design and Development of Potential Tissue Engineering Scaffolds from Structurally Different Longitudinal Parts of a Bovine-Femur.” Scientific Reports 4 (July): 5843.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stenning, Alison, Adrian Smith, Alena Rochovská, and Dariusz Świa̧tek. 2010. Domesticating Neo-Liberalism. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Zhang, Lixian. 2016. Analysis and Design of Markov Jump Systems with Complex Transition Probabilities. Edited by Ting Yang, Peng Shi, and Yanzheng Zhu. 1st ed. 2016. Vol. 54. Studies in Systems, Decision and Control. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Liu, Dake, Anders Nilsson, and Eric Tell. 2006. “PROGRAMMABLE BASEBAND PROCESSORS.” In Radio Design in Nanometer Technologies, edited by Mohammed Ismail and Delia Rodríguez D. E. Llera González, 83–100. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Zoology and Ecology.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2017. “State Of The World’s Plants Report Highlights 28,000 Species With Medicinal Properties.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2009. High Speed Passenger Rail: Developing Viable High Speed Rail Projects under the Recovery Act and Beyond. GAO-10-162T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Belflower, Keri E. 2012. “The Relationship between Demographic and Employment Variables of Job Satisfaction among Emergency Nurses.” Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pols, Mary. 2016. “Apples of Contention.” New York Times, April 24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lupas 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Lupas 2014; Marusyk and Polyak 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Marusyk and Polyak 2013)
  • Three authors: (Komatitsch, Ritsema, and Tromp 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Pramanik et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleZoology and Ecology
AbbreviationZool. Ecol.
ISSN (print)2165-8005
ISSN (online)2165-8013
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

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