How to format your references using the Zoology and Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Zoology and Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ray, Animesh. 2005. “Plant Genetics: RNA Cache or Genome Trash?” Nature 437 (7055): E1-2; discussion E2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Abrahamson, J., and J. Dinniss. 2000. “Ball Lightning Caused by Oxidation of Nanoparticle Networks from Normal Lightning Strikes on Soil.” Nature 403 (6769): 519–521.
A journal article with 3 authors
Traag, V. A., G. Krings, and P. Van Dooren. 2013. “Significant Scales in Community Structure.” Scientific Reports 3 (October): 2930.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Coates, J. D., R. Chakraborty, J. G. Lack, S. M. O’Connor, K. A. Cole, K. S. Bender, and L. A. Achenbach. 2001. “Anaerobic Benzene Oxidation Coupled to Nitrate Reduction in Pure Culture by Two Strains of Dechloromonas.” Nature 411 (6841): 1039–1043.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Minoli, Daniel. 2007. IP Multicast with Applications to IPTV and Mobile DVB-H. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ács, Nándor, Ferenc G. Bánhidy, and Andrew E. Czeizel, eds. 2010. Congenital Abnormalities and Preterm Birth Related to Maternal Illnesses During Pregnancy. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Balaji Rao, K., M. B. Anoop, Gopika Vinod, and H. S. Kushwaha. 2016. “Risk Informed In-Service Inspection of PWR Nuclear Power Plant Piping Components Subjected to Erosion-Corrosion Using Markov Chain Model.” In Current Trends in Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Safety: An Industry Perspective, edited by Uday Kumar, Alireza Ahmadi, Ajit Kumar Verma, and Prabhakar Varde, 39–48. Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Zoology and Ecology.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle. 2016. “DNA Reveals A New History Of The First Australians.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1980. Need To Ensure Nondiscrimination in CETA Programs. HRD-80-75. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Littlefield, Scott. 2017. “Application of Discrete Event Simulation to Modeling Reliability of Highly Parallel Systems with Common Cause Failures.” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, George. 2011. “Far From Perfection, but Closer to Vindication.” New York Times, May 8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ray 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Ray 2005; Abrahamson and Dinniss 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Abrahamson and Dinniss 2000)
  • Three authors: (Traag, Krings, and Van Dooren 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Coates et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleZoology and Ecology
AbbreviationZool. Ecol.
ISSN (print)2165-8005
ISSN (online)2165-8013
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

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