How to format your references using the Zoology and Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Zoology and Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macneil, J. S. 2000. “NEUROSCIENCE: Neural Net Contest Draws Online Crowd.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 290 (5500): 2233b.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ratcliff, William Croft, and Robert Ford Denison. 2011. “Microbiology. Alternative Actions for Antibiotics.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 332 (6029): 547–548.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ravi, Maruthachalam, Mohan P. A. Marimuthu, and Imran Siddiqi. 2008. “Gamete Formation without Meiosis in Arabidopsis.” Nature 451 (7182): 1121–1124.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Daulton, T. L., T. J. Bernatowicz, R. S. Lewis, S. Messenger, F. J. Stadermann, and S. Amari. 2002. “Polytype Distribution in Circumstellar Silicon Carbide.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 296 (5574): 1852–1855.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Church, Richard L., and Alan T. Murray. 2008. Business Site Selection, Location Analysis and GIS. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Krasińska, Małgorzata. 2013. European Bison: The Nature Monograph. Edited by Zbigniew A. Krasiński. 2nd ed. 2013. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Peardon, Mike. 2005. “Monte Carlo Simulations of Lattice QCD.” In QCD and Numerical Analysis III: Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Numerical Analysis and Lattice QCD, Edinburgh June-July 2003, edited by Artan Bori~i, Andreas Frommer, Bálint Joó, Anthony Kennedy, and Brian Pendleton, 41–54. Lecture Notes in Computational Science and Engineering. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Zoology and Ecology.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2016. “Watch What Happens When A Cat Tries To Eat A Live Octopus.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1989. Space Funding: NASA and DOD Activities for Fiscal Years 1981 Through 1989. NSIAD-89-102FS. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Salazar, Alma. 2012. “Small School, Big Gains: A Case Study of Urban High School Reform.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lee, Linda. 2014. “Whatever Floats Your Soap.” New York Times, February 20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Macneil 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Macneil 2000; Ratcliff and Denison 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ratcliff and Denison 2011)
  • Three authors: (Ravi, Marimuthu, and Siddiqi 2008)
  • 4 or more authors: (Daulton et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleZoology and Ecology
AbbreviationZool. Ecol.
ISSN (print)2165-8005
ISSN (online)2165-8013
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

Other styles