How to format your references using the Psychopharmacology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychopharmacology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Carmichael M (2013) Drug safety: double jeopardy. Nature 498:S14-5
A journal article with 2 authors
Casanova J-L, Abel L (2007) Primary immunodeficiencies: a field in its infancy. Science 317:617–619
A journal article with 3 authors
Smothers JF, Henikoff S, Carter P (2002) Tech.Sight. Phage display. Affinity selection from biological libraries. Science 298:621–622
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Murray RZ, Kay JG, Sangermani DG, Stow JL (2005) A role for the phagosome in cytokine secretion. Science 310:1492–1495

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tikhomirov VV (2016) Hydrogeochemistry Fundamentals and Advances. John Wiley &;#38; Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Hetzer R, Rankin JS, Yankah CA (eds) (2011) Mitral Valve Repair. Steinkopff, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Messina G, Biressi S, Cossu G (2008) Non Muscle Stem Cells and Muscle Regeneration. In: Partridge T (ed) Skeletal Muscle Repair and Regeneration. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 65–84

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychopharmacology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Can A Virtual Reality Game Make You Forget You’re In Pain? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2009) Excluded Parties List System: Suspended and Debarred Businesses and Individuals Improperly Receive Federal Funds. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McClenahan A (2017) The Impact of Media Promulgated Fear on the Psyche: Love Will Prevail. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J (2017) Long Game Leaves Mets’ Bullpen Weary, and Ready for a Reinforcement. New York Times B10

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Carmichael 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Casanova and Abel 2007; Carmichael 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Casanova and Abel 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Murray et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychopharmacology
AbbreviationPsychopharmacology (Berl.)
ISSN (print)0033-3158
ISSN (online)1432-2072

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