How to format your references using the Psychopharmacology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychopharmacology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schulz E (2015) Organic chemistry: One catalyst, two reactions. Nature 517:280–281
A journal article with 2 authors
Philpotts AR, Dickson LD (2000) The formation of plagioclase chains during convective transfer in basaltic magma. Nature 406:59–61
A journal article with 3 authors
Giannini A, Saravanan R, Chang P (2003) Oceanic forcing of Sahel rainfall on interannual to interdecadal time scales. Science 302:1027–1030
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Agaisse H, Burrack LS, Philips JA, et al (2005) Genome-wide RNAi screen for host factors required for intracellular bacterial infection. Science 309:1248–1251

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Norwitz ER, Belfort MA, Saade GR, Miller H (2010) Obstetric Clinical Algorithms: Management and Evidence. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Casanovas P, Sartor G, Casellas N, Rubino R (eds) (2008) Computable Models of the Law: Languages, Dialogues, Games, Ontologies. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Giannini C, Okazaki H (2009) Nervous System. In: Waters BL (ed) Handbook of Autopsy Practice. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp 51–68

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychopharmacology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2015) First Brain-to-Brain Interface Could Revolutionize Neuroscience. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2001) Federal Research and Development: Contributions to and Results of the Small Business Technology Transfer Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Iwuagwu CI (2017) Preventing the Spread of HIV Among Homeless Youth in California. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B (2017) The Chainsmokers Bump Drake Off No. 1. New York Times C3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schulz 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Philpotts and Dickson 2000; Schulz 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Philpotts and Dickson 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Agaisse et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychopharmacology
AbbreviationPsychopharmacology (Berl.)
ISSN (print)0033-3158
ISSN (online)1432-2072

Other styles