How to format your references using the International Journal of Marine Energy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Marine Energy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.G. McCarty, Durable catalysts for cleaner air, Nature. 403 (2000) 35–36.
A journal article with 2 authors
R.G. Roberts, B.W. Brook, Paleontology. And then there were none?, Science. 327 (2010) 420–422.
A journal article with 3 authors
M.A. Sillanpää, J.I. Park, R.W. Simmonds, Coherent quantum state storage and transfer between two phase qubits via a resonant cavity, Nature. 449 (2007) 438–442.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
K. Varoon, X. Zhang, B. Elyassi, D.D. Brewer, M. Gettel, S. Kumar, J.A. Lee, S. Maheshwari, A. Mittal, C.-Y. Sung, M. Cococcioni, L.F. Francis, A.V. McCormick, K.A. Mkhoyan, M. Tsapatsis, Dispersible exfoliated zeolite nanosheets and their application as a selective membrane, Science. 334 (2011) 72–75.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
N. Adams, Eclipse of Grace, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Oxford, UK, 2013.
An edited book
A. Winter, Health Information Systems: Architectures and Strategies, Second Edition, Springer, London, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Ö. Karahan, O. Çolak, The Impact of Inflation Targeting Policy on the Inflation Uncertainty in Turkey, in: A. Karasavvoglou, P. Polychronidou (Eds.), Balkan and Eastern European Countries in the Midst of the Global Economic Crisis, Physica-Verlag HD, Heidelberg, 2013: pp. 49–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Marine Energy.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Embryonic Stem Cells Show Promise As MS Treatment In Mice, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Airport and Airway Trust Fund Excise Taxes, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C.-M. Pan, Synthesis and Evaluation of Macrocycles as Potential Antitumor Agents, Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
A.L. Baker, Push to Rid City of Classrooms That Are Anything but Temporary, New York Times. (2014) A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Marine Energy
AbbreviationInt. J. Mar. Energy
ISSN (print)2214-1669
ScopeMechanical Engineering
Ocean Engineering
Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
Environmental Engineering
Water Science and Technology

Other styles