How to format your references using the International Journal of Marine Energy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Marine Energy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R.H. Tyler, Strong ocean tidal flow and heating on moons of the outer planets, Nature. 456 (2008) 770–772.
A journal article with 2 authors
W.J. Sutherland, M. Burgman, Policy advice: Use experts wisely, Nature. 526 (2015) 317–318.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. Huang, C.F. Lesser, S. Lory, The essential role of the CopN protein in Chlamydia pneumoniae intracellular growth, Nature. 456 (2008) 112–115.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A.H. Williams, G. Valdez, V. Moresi, X. Qi, J. McAnally, J.L. Elliott, R. Bassel-Duby, J.R. Sanes, E.N. Olson, MicroRNA-206 delays ALS progression and promotes regeneration of neuromuscular synapses in mice, Science. 326 (2009) 1549–1554.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A.S. Pakurar, J.W. Bigbee, Digital Histology, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2005.
An edited book
D.E. Slice, ed., Modern Morphometrics in Physical Anthropology, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
T. Kuosmanen, A. Keshvari, R.K. Matin, Discrete and Integer Valued Inputs and Outputs in Data Envelopment Analysis, in: J. Zhu (Ed.), Data Envelopment Analysis: A Handbook of Models and Methods, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2015: pp. 67–103.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Marine Energy.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Astronomers Map Dark Matter, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Highway Contracting: Assessing Fraud and Abuse in FHwA’s Disadvantaged Business Enterprise Program, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
H.M. Gonzalez, DiaBeaThis Healthcare Clinic Business Plan, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.D. Shear, ‘I’m President and They’re Not’: Trump Attack Brings Crowd to Its Feet, New York Times. (2017) A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Marine Energy
AbbreviationInt. J. Mar. Energy
ISSN (print)2214-1669
ScopeMechanical Engineering
Ocean Engineering
Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
Environmental Engineering
Water Science and Technology

Other styles