How to format your references using the International Journal of Marine Energy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Marine Energy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
T.G. Shepherd, Climate science: The dynamics of temperature extremes, Nature. 522 (2015) 425–427.
A journal article with 2 authors
H.M. Birch, J. Clayton, Cell biology: close-up on cell biology, Nature. 446 (2007) 937–940.
A journal article with 3 authors
L.-A. Wu, D. Segal, P. Brumer, No-go theorem for ground state cooling given initial system-thermal bath factorization, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1824.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
E.J.H. Robinson, D.E. Jackson, M. Holcombe, F.L.W. Ratnieks, Insect communication: “no entry” signal in ant foraging, Nature. 438 (2005) 442.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S. Smilansky, 10 Moral Paradoxes, Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK, 2007.
An edited book
A. Karasavvoglou, Z. Aranđelović, S. Marinković, P. Polychronidou, eds., The First Decade of Living with the Global Crisis: Economic and Social Developments in the Balkans and Eastern Europe, 1st ed. 2016, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
C.T. Fisher, Agricultural Intensification in the Lake Pátzcuaro Basin, in: T.L. Thurston, C.T. Fisher (Eds.), Seeking a Richer Harvest: The Archaeology of Subsistence Intensification, Innovation, and Change, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2007: pp. 91–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Marine Energy.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Astronomers Spot Cosmic “Dinosaur Egg” That’s About To Hatch, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Export Controls: NASA Management Action and Improved Oversight Needed to Reduce the Risk of Unauthorized Access to Its Technologies, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
G.L. Schroder, A quantitative study of critical thinking skills in bachelors of science nursing program students, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Kishkovsky, Russia Inaugurates Book Prize. It’s Big, New York Times. (2006) E1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Marine Energy
AbbreviationInt. J. Mar. Energy
ISSN (print)2214-1669
ScopeMechanical Engineering
Ocean Engineering
Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
Environmental Engineering
Water Science and Technology

Other styles