How to format your references using the Psychosomatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychosomatics (PSYM). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abdool Karim SS: Stigma impedes AIDS prevention. Nature 2011; 474(7349): 29–31.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gerardot BD, Ohberg P: Physics. A strongly driven spin. Science 2009; 326(5959): 1489–90.
A journal article with 3 authors
Teuten EL, Xu L, Reddy CM: Two abundant bioaccumulated halogenated compounds are natural products. Science 2005; 307(5711): 917–20.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Madueno R, Räisänen MT, Silien C, Buck M: Functionalizing hydrogen-bonded surface networks with self-assembled monolayers. Nature 2008; 454(7204): 618–21.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anderson RJ, Groundwater PW, Todd A, Worsley AJ: Antibacterial Agents. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Krogstie J, Opdahl AL, Brinkkemper S, editors.: Conceptual Modelling in Information Systems Engineering. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Pryl K, Svitak Z: URBAN INFRASTRUCTURE MODELLING. In: Hlavinek P, Kukharchyk T, Marsalek J, and Mahrikova I, editors. Integrated Urban Water Resources Management. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006. p. 43–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychosomatics.

Blog post
Andrew E: Researchers Discover Brain Cell Changes That Contribute To Alzheimer’s Development In Down’s Syndrome Individuals. IFLScience. Available at Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Taxpayer Information: Data Sharing and Analysis May Enhance Tax Compliance and Improve Immigration Eligibility Decisions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pan Y: Long-Term Effects of Higher-Quality Early Childhood Education for At-Risk Children on Their Later Development and Resilience. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G: A Tournament Filled With Hope and Grace and Wind. New York Times 2010: SP9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychosomatics
ISSN (print)0033-3182
ISSN (online)1545-7206
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Psychiatry and Mental health
Applied Psychology

Other styles