How to format your references using the Psychometrika citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychometrika. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nachtsheim, B. J. (2014). Chemistry. Creating antioxidants by oxidation catalysis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 345(6194), 270–271.
A journal article with 2 authors
Russo, T., & Volterra, V. (2005). Comment on “children creating core properties of language: evidence from an emerging sign language in Nicaragua.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5731), 56; author reply 56.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bloom, D. E., Canning, D., & Fink, G. (2008). Urbanization and the wealth of nations. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5864), 772–775.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Nakata, M., Zanchetta, G., Chapman, B. D., Jones, C. D., Cross, J. O., Pindak, R., et al. (2007). End-to-end stacking and liquid crystal condensation of 6 to 20 base pair DNA duplexes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5854), 1276–1279.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Manuele, F. A. (2007). Advanced Safety Management Focusing on Z10 and Serious Injury Prevention. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Burt, S., & Añorve, D. A. (Eds.). (2016). Global Perspectives on US Democratization Efforts: From the Outside In. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US.
A chapter in an edited book
Ben-Daya, M. (2009). Failure Mode and Effect Analysis. In M. Ben-Daya, S. O. Duffuaa, A. Raouf, J. Knezevic, & D. Ait-Kadi (Eds.), Handbook of Maintenance Management and Engineering (pp. 75–90). London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychometrika.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2017, May 24). Early Universe Discovery Might Help Explain How Galaxies Got So Big So Quickly. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1990). Serious Shortcomings in FAA’s Training Program Must Be Remedied (No. T-RCED-90-91). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Green, D. J. (2010). Shoulder functional anatomy and development – Implications for interpreting early hominin locomotion (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B. (2017, September 6). Federer and Nadal Have Never Met In New York, but Have Come Close. New York Times, p. B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nachtsheim 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Nachtsheim 2014; Russo and Volterra 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Russo and Volterra 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Nakata et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychometrika
ISSN (print)0033-3123
ISSN (online)1860-0980
ScopeApplied Mathematics
General Psychology

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