How to format your references using the Psychometrika citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychometrika. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kessin, R. H. (2010). Microbiology. Sex and sacrifice. Science (New York, N.Y.), 330(6010), 1487–1488.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rinberg, D., & Davidowitz, H. (2000). Do cockroaches “know” about fluid dynamics? Nature, 405(6788), 756.
A journal article with 3 authors
Liu, W. W., Mazor, O., & Wilson, R. I. (2015). Thermosensory processing in the Drosophila brain. Nature, 519(7543), 353–357.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Nishihata, Y., Mizuki, J., Akao, T., Tanaka, H., Uenishi, M., Kimura, M., et al. (2002). Self-regeneration of a Pd-perovskite catalyst for automotive emissions control. Nature, 418(6894), 164–167.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cooper, N., Forrest, K., & Cramp, P. (2008). Essential Guide to Generic Skills. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An edited book
Thornhill, R. (2014). The Parasite-Stress Theory of Values and Sociality: Infectious Disease, History and Human Values Worldwide. (C. L. Fincher, Ed.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Saharan, V., & Pal, A. (2016). Biological Activities of Chitosan-Based Nanomaterials. In A. Pal (Ed.), Chitosan Based Nanomaterials in Plant Growth and Protection (pp. 33–41). New Delhi: Springer India.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychometrika.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2013, October 22). Unusual Animal Intelligence. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1978). Review of NASA’s Solicitation for the Leasing of Office Space in the Houston, Texas, Area (No. LCD-78-325). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Buckley, K. M. (2008). Diversity and evolution of 185/333, an immune -related gene family from the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J. (2016, September 15). Emmys Seek Ratings Winner. New York Times, p. C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kessin 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Kessin 2010, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rinberg and Davidowitz 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Nishihata et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychometrika
ISSN (print)0033-3123
ISSN (online)1860-0980
ScopeApplied Mathematics
General Psychology

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