How to format your references using the Journal of Analytical Toxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Analytical Toxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Weinberg, R. (2010) Point: Hypotheses first. Nature, 464, 678.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Kim, J. and Holtzman, D.M. (2010) Medicine. Prion-like behavior of amyloid-beta. Science (New York, N.Y.), 330, 918–919.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Lecavelier des Etangs, A., Vidal-Madjar, A. and Désert, J.-M. (2008) The origin of hydrogen around HD 209458b. Nature, 456, E1; discussion E1-2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Liu, Q., Wang, L., Frutos, A.G., Condon, A.E., Corn, R.M. and Smith, L.M. (2000) DNA computing on surfaces. Nature, 403, 175–179.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Smilansky, S. (2007) 10 Moral Paradoxes. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
1. Gulati, R.D., Lammens, E., Pauw, N.D. and Donk, E.V. (eds) (2007) Shallow Lakes in a Changing World: Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Shallow Lakes, held at Dalfsen, The Netherlands, 5–9 June 2005. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Frey, J., Bird, C. and Willoughby, C. (2013) Smart Meeting Spaces for Knowledge Transfer. In Howlett, R.J., Gabrys, B., Musial-Gabrys, K., Roach, J. (eds), Innovation through Knowledge Transfer 2012. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 31–38.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Analytical Toxicology.

Blog post
1. Luntz, S. (2016) The Americas Joined Together Three Million Years Ago. IFLScience, August 17, 2016. (30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office (1998) Federal Education Funding: Multiple Programs and Lack of Data Raise Efficiency and Effectiveness Concerns (Supplemental Information to Testimony). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Moore, A.M. (2010) Assessing the demand for simplified stormwater modeling tools within the design profession to facilitate the adoption of sustainable stormwater practices. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Brantley, B. (2017) Hot for a Dairy Queen Sign. New York Times, August 31, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Analytical Toxicology
AbbreviationJ. Anal. Toxicol.
ISSN (print)0146-4760
ISSN (online)1945-2403
ScopeChemical Health and Safety
Analytical Chemistry
Environmental Chemistry
Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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