How to format your references using the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychology of Religion and Spirituality. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dagotto, E. (2007). PHYSICS. When oxides meet face to face. Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5853), 1076–1077.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jacob, Y., & Martienssen, R. (2012). Molecular biology. All packed up and ready to go. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6087), 1391–1392.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xiao, S., Li, R., & Chen, M. (2013). Detecting sedimentary cycles using autocorrelation of grain size. Scientific Reports, 3, 1653.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Oria, R., Wiegand, T., Escribano, J., Elosegui-Artola, A., Uriarte, J. J., Moreno-Pulido, C., Platzman, I., Delcanale, P., Albertazzi, L., Navajas, D., Trepat, X., García-Aznar, J. M., Cavalcanti-Adam, E. A., & Roca-Cusachs, P. (2017). Force loading explains spatial sensing of ligands by cells. Nature, 552(7684), 219–224.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lado, E. P. (2016). The Common Fisheries Policy. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Hernández-Hernández, D., & Minjárez-Sosa, J. A. (Eds.). (2012). Optimization, Control, and Applications of Stochastic Systems: In Honor of Onésimo Hernández-Lerma. Birkhäuser.
A chapter in an edited book
Rhee, H. S., Jeong, I. R., Byun, J. W., & Lee, D. H. (2006). Difference Set Attacks on Conjunctive Keyword Search Schemes. In W. Jonker & M. Petković (Eds.), Secure Data Management: Third VLDB Workshop, SDM 2006, Seoul, Korea, September 10-11, 2006. Proceedings (pp. 64–74). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychology of Religion and Spirituality.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, September 2). Amazing Video Of A Mantis Shrimp Spearing A Fish In Slow Motion. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2014). Tobacco Product Regulation: Most FDA Spending Funded Public Education, Regulatory Science, and Compliance and Enforcement Activities (GAO-14-561). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Voma, S. K. (2017). Design of Power Management Circuit for Energy Harvesting Applications [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ivory, D., & Ruiz, R. R. (2014, April 1). Cobalts Were Seen as Lemons From Start, State Data Shows. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dagotto, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Dagotto, 2007; Jacob & Martienssen, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jacob & Martienssen, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Xiao et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Oria et al., 2017)

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychology of Religion and Spirituality
AbbreviationPsycholog. Relig. Spiritual.
ISSN (print)1941-1022
ISSN (online)1943-1562
ScopeReligious studies
Applied Psychology
Social Psychology

Other styles