How to format your references using the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychology of Religion and Spirituality. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Roberts, J. W. (2010). Molecular biology. Syntheses that stay together. Science (New York, N.Y.), 328(5977), 436–437.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lum, L., & Clevers, H. (2012). Cell biology. The unusual case of Porcupine. Science (New York, N.Y.), 337(6097), 922–923.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yamaguchi, M., Shiga, M., & Kaburaki, H. (2005). Grain boundary decohesion by impurity segregation in a nickel-sulfur system. Science (New York, N.Y.), 307(5708), 393–397.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Monteiro, J. M., Pereira, A. R., Reichmann, N. T., Saraiva, B. M., Fernandes, P. B., Veiga, H., Tavares, A. C., Santos, M., Ferreira, M. T., Macário, V., VanNieuwenhze, M. S., Filipe, S. R., & Pinho, M. G. (2018). Peptidoglycan synthesis drives an FtsZ-treadmilling-independent step of cytokinesis. Nature, 554(7693), 528–532.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sato, T., Kammen, D. M., Duan, B., Macuha, M., Zhou, Z., Wu, J., Tariq, M., & Asfaw, S. A. (2015). Smart Grid Standards. John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd.
An edited book
Gaspar-Cunha, A., Henggeler Antunes, C., & Coello, C. C. (Eds.). (2015). Evolutionary Multi-Criterion Optimization: 8th International Conference, EMO 2015, Guimarães, Portugal, March 29 --April 1, 2015. Proceedings, Part I (Vol. 9018). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Post, M. J., Cornelussen, R. N. M., & Prinzen, F. W. (2007). Pampering and Priming the Heart. In E. Deindl & C. Kupatt (Eds.), Therapeutic Neovascularization–Quo Vadis? (pp. 85–108). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychology of Religion and Spirituality.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, October 16). How Female Parasitoid Wasps Pick Their Caterpillar Victims. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2016). Highlights of a Forum: Data and Analytics Innovation: Emerging Opportunities and Challenges (GAO-16-659SP). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pappa, D. M. (2002). A Study of Various Process Factors in the Scale Up of a High Shear Granulated Product [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Cincinnati.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wilson, M. (2017, August 15). Before Prison, Producer Recalls Fateful Night. New York Times, A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Roberts, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Lum & Clevers, 2012; Roberts, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lum & Clevers, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Yamaguchi et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Monteiro et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychology of Religion and Spirituality
AbbreviationPsycholog. Relig. Spiritual.
ISSN (print)1941-1022
ISSN (online)1943-1562
ScopeReligious studies
Applied Psychology
Social Psychology

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