How to format your references using the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychology of Religion and Spirituality. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nichols, D. (2011). Legal highs: the dark side of medicinal chemistry. Nature, 469(7328), 7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hug, C., & Lodish, H. F. (2005). Medicine. Visfatin: a new adipokine. Science (New York, N.Y.), 307(5708), 366–367.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bao, H., Yu, S., & Tong, D. Q. (2010). Massive volcanic SO(2) oxidation and sulphate aerosol deposition in Cenozoic North America. Nature, 465(7300), 909–912.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Rizzini, L., Favory, J.-J., Cloix, C., Faggionato, D., O’Hara, A., Kaiserli, E., Baumeister, R., Schäfer, E., Nagy, F., Jenkins, G. I., & Ulm, R. (2011). Perception of UV-B by the Arabidopsis UVR8 protein. Science (New York, N.Y.), 332(6025), 103–106.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Geyer, T. (2016). Model Predictive Control of High Power Convertersand Industrial Drives. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Pequegnat, W., & Bell, C. C. (Eds.). (2012). Family and HIV/AIDS: Cultural and Contextual Issues in Prevention and Treatment. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Tomar, V., Qu, T., Dubey, D. K., Verma, D., & Zhang, Y. (2015). Multiscaling for Molecular Models to Predict Lab Scale Sample Properties: A Review of Phenomenological Models. In T. Qu, D. K. Dubey, D. Verma, & Y. Zhang (Eds.), Multiscale Characterization of Biological Systems: Spectroscopy and Modeling (pp. 61–80). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychology of Religion and Spirituality.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2017, March 4). Now For Some Good News: Regular Sex Benefits Your Mental Health, Too. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2006). Child Care and Early Childhood Education: More Information Sharing and Program Review by HHS Could Enhance Access for Families with Limited English Proficiency (Chinese Version) (GAO-06-950). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Panteleyeva, N. B. (2010). Statistical methods of latent structure discovery in child-directed speech [Doctoral dissertation]. Indiana University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Antilla, S. (2017, March 6). Jeweler’s Policies Masked Abuses, Suit Says. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nichols, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Hug & Lodish, 2005; Nichols, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hug & Lodish, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Bao et al., 2010)
  • 6 or more authors: (Rizzini et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychology of Religion and Spirituality
AbbreviationPsycholog. Relig. Spiritual.
ISSN (print)1941-1022
ISSN (online)1943-1562
ScopeReligious studies
Applied Psychology
Social Psychology

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