How to format your references using the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychology of Religion and Spirituality. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kamien, R. D. (2007). Materials science. Better geometry through chemistry. Science (New York, N.Y.), 315(5815), 1083–1084.
A journal article with 2 authors
Huang, A. S., & Tan, C. Y. H. (2010). Science and society. Achieving scientific eminence within Asia. Science (New York, N.Y.), 329(5998), 1471–1472.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rozin, P., Haidt, J., & Fincher, K. (2009). Psychology. From oral to moral. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5918), 1179–1180.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Strobel, P., Riedel, M., Ristein, J., & Ley, L. (2004). Surface transfer doping of diamond. Nature, 430(6998), 439–441.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Walter, R. J. (1998). Practical Compliance with the EPA Risk Management Program. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Luo, Y. (Ed.). (2011). Cooperative Design, Visualization, and Engineering: 8th International Conference, CDVE 2011, Hong Kong, China, September 11-14, 2011. Proceedings (Vol. 6874). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Li, Y., Thomason, M., & Parker, L. E. (2014). Sequential Anomaly Detection Using Wireless Sensor Networks in Unknown Environment. In P. Spagnolo, P. L. Mazzeo, & C. Distante (Eds.), Human Behavior Understanding in Networked Sensing: Theory and Applications of Networks of Sensors (pp. 99–123). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychology of Religion and Spirituality.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 6). Psychopaths Versus Sociopaths: What Is The Difference? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1979). The Federal Weather Program Must Have Stronger Central Direction (LCD-80-10). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mahler, E. B. (2008). Defining career success in the 21st century: A narrative study of intentional work role transitions [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2007, October 10). Skeptically, Court Hears Fraud Case. New York Times, C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kamien, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Huang & Tan, 2010; Kamien, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Huang & Tan, 2010)
  • Three authors: (Rozin et al., 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Strobel et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychology of Religion and Spirituality
AbbreviationPsycholog. Relig. Spiritual.
ISSN (print)1941-1022
ISSN (online)1943-1562
ScopeReligious studies
Applied Psychology
Social Psychology

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