How to format your references using the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychology of Religion and Spirituality. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wadman, M. (2007). Moment of reckoning. Nature, 446(7138), 844–845.
A journal article with 2 authors
Klein, M. L., & Shinoda, W. (2008). Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of self-assembling systems. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5890), 798–800.
A journal article with 3 authors
Scaffidi, P., Misteli, T., & Bianchi, M. E. (2002). Release of chromatin protein HMGB1 by necrotic cells triggers inflammation. Nature, 418(6894), 191–195.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Silva, J. M., Marran, K., Parker, J. S., Silva, J., Golding, M., Schlabach, M. R., … Chang, K. (2008). Profiling essential genes in human mammary cells by multiplex RNAi screening. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5863), 617–620.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Heller, D. (2011). Hairspray. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Ometto, J. P., Bun, R., Jonas, M., & Nahorski, Z. (Eds.). (2015). Uncertainties in Greenhouse Gas Inventories: Expanding Our Perspective. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Leung, A. M., & Brent, G. A. (2016). The Influence of Thyroid Hormone on Growth Hormone Secretion and Action. In L. E. Cohen (Ed.), Growth Hormone Deficiency: Physiology and Clinical Management (pp. 29–46). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychology of Religion and Spirituality.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2016, August 24). City Center Seagulls Could Help Plan Drone Flight Paths. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1988). ADP Modernization: IRS’ Progress on the Electronic Filing System (No. IMTEC-88-40). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mycroft, D. (2012). Minorities in leadership and financial performance of their Fortune 500 companies (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear, M. D. (2017, June 26). Questions and Answers About the Ruling. New York Times, p. A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wadman, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Klein & Shinoda, 2008; Wadman, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Klein & Shinoda, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Scaffidi, Misteli, & Bianchi, 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Silva et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychology of Religion and Spirituality
AbbreviationPsycholog. Relig. Spiritual.
ISSN (print)1941-1022
ISSN (online)1943-1562
ScopeReligious studies
Applied Psychology
Social Psychology

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