How to format your references using the Progress in Surface Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Progress in Surface Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
K. Powell, Analyse this, Nature. 431 (2004) 880–881.
A journal article with 2 authors
J.K. Rilling, L.J. Young, The biology of mammalian parenting and its effect on offspring social development, Science. 345 (2014) 771–776.
A journal article with 3 authors
T. Sakai, M. Larsen, K.M. Yamada, Fibronectin requirement in branching morphogenesis, Nature. 423 (2003) 876–881.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A.T. Willingham, A.P. Orth, S. Batalov, E.C. Peters, B.G. Wen, P. Aza-Blanc, J.B. Hogenesch, P.G. Schultz, A strategy for probing the function of noncoding RNAs finds a repressor of NFAT, Science. 309 (2005) 1570–1573.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R.E. Wubbolding, Reality Therapy and Self-Evaluation, American Counseling Association, Alexandria, VA, 2017.
An edited book
E. Maricau, Analog IC Reliability in Nanometer CMOS, Springer, New York, NY, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Eaton, Evolutionary Humanoid Robotics: Past, Present and Future, in: M. Lungarella, F. Iida, J. Bongard, R. Pfeifer (Eds.), 50 Years of Artificial Intelligence: Essays Dedicated to the 50th Anniversary of Artificial Intelligence, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007: pp. 42–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Progress in Surface Science.

Blog post
R. Andrews, NASA Finds Young Volcano On Mars That Outlived The Dinosaurs, IFLScience. (2017).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Transportation Services: Better Dissemination and Oversight of DOT’s Guidance Could Lead to Improved Access for Limited English-Proficient Populations (Chinese Version), U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S. Fetterolf-Klein, Teacher leadership practices, supports and challenges in implementation of the common core high school math standards, Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, Suddenly, San Francisco’s a Baseball Town, New York Times. (2010) B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProgress in Surface Science
AbbreviationProg. Surf. Sci.
ISSN (print)0079-6816
ScopeSurfaces, Coatings and Films
Condensed Matter Physics
Surfaces and Interfaces

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