How to format your references using the Progress in Surface Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Progress in Surface Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Yablokov, Academy “reform” is stifling Russian science, Nature. 511 (2014) 7.
A journal article with 2 authors
H. Alle, J.R.P. Geiger, Combined analog and action potential coding in hippocampal mossy fibers, Science. 311 (2006) 1290–1293.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. Bloxham, S. Zatman, M. Dumberry, The origin of geomagnetic jerks, Nature. 420 (2002) 65–68.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
B. Chen, M. Eddaoudi, S.T. Hyde, M. O’Keeffe, O.M. Yaghi, Interwoven metal-organic framework on a periodic minimal surface with extra-large pores, Science. 291 (2001) 1021–1023.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Liautaud, Breaking Through, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2016.
An edited book
S.C.H. Hoi, J. Luo, S. Boll, D. Xu, R. Jin, I. King, eds., Social Media Modeling and Computing, Springer, London, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
P. Dunbar, M. Eblé, G. Mungov, H. McCullough, E. Harris, NOAA’s Historical Tsunami Event Database, Raw and Processed Water Level Data, and Model Output Relevant to the 11 March 2011 Tohoku, Japan Earthquake and Tsunami, in: Y.A. Kontar, V. Santiago-Fandiño, T. Takahashi (Eds.), Tsunami Events and Lessons Learned: Environmental and Societal Significance, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2014: pp. 113–127.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Progress in Surface Science.

Blog post
J. Fang, Museum Plaster Model was Actually the Fossil of a New Ichthyosaur Species, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Railroad Bridges and Tunnels: Federal Role in Providing Safety Oversight and Freight Infrastructure Investment Could Be Better Targeted, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.L. Hollenbeck, The Challenge of U.S. West Coast Earthquake Response: Federal Urban Search and Rescue, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.M. Grynbaum, The Battle of ‘Morning Joe’: A Presidential Feud, New York Times. (2017) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProgress in Surface Science
AbbreviationProg. Surf. Sci.
ISSN (print)0079-6816
ScopeSurfaces, Coatings and Films
Condensed Matter Physics
Surfaces and Interfaces

Other styles