How to format your references using the Diatom Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diatom Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sarewitz D. 2010. Entertaining science. Nature 466: 27.
A journal article with 2 authors
McInerney J. O. & Pisani D. 2007. Genetics. Paradigm for life. Science (New York, N.Y.) 318: 1390–1391.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shim S.-B., Imboden M. & Mohanty P. 2007. Synchronized oscillation in coupled nanomechanical oscillators. Science (New York, N.Y.) 316: 95–99.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Edamatsu K., Oohata G., Shimizu R. & Itoh T. 2004. Generation of ultraviolet entangled photons in a semiconductor. Nature 431: 167–170.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Li P. & Marrongelle K. 2012. Having Success with NSF. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Desrosiers P. M. (ed) 2012. The Emergence of Pressure Blade Making: From Origin to Modern Experimentation. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Chao N.-H. & Liao I. C. 2007. Sustainable Approaches for Aquaculture Development: Looking Ahead Through Lessons in the Past. In: Ecological and Genetic Implications of Aquaculture Activities (Ed. by T. M. Bert), pp. 73–82. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diatom Research.

Blog post
Hale T. 2017, June 8. Extinct Baby Bird Has Been Stuck in Amber For 100 Million Years. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1988. Toward Equality: Education of the Deaf. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Roberts M. 2017. Use of Stay Interviews as a Retention Tool for Key Talent. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J. 2017, March 21. Fox Sidelines Legal Analyst After Wiretap Allegation. New York Times: B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sarewitz 2010).
This sentence cites two references (McInerney & Pisani 2007, Sarewitz 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (McInerney & Pisani 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Edamatsu et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleDiatom Research
AbbreviationDiatom Res.
ISSN (print)0269-249X
ISSN (online)2159-8347
ScopeAquatic Science

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