How to format your references using the Diatom Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diatom Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Roberts J. W. 2006. Biochemistry. RNA polymerase, a scrunching machine. Science (New York, N.Y.) 314: 1097–1098.
A journal article with 2 authors
Soundararajan V. & Aravamudan M. 2014. Global connectivity of hub residues in Oncoprotein structures encodes genetic factors dictating personalized drug response to targeted Cancer therapy. Scientific reports 4: 7294.
A journal article with 3 authors
Traag V. A., Krings G. & Van Dooren P. 2013. Significant scales in community structure. Scientific reports 3: 2930.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
O’Brien J. L., Pryde G. J., White A. G., Ralph T. C. & Branning D. 2003. Demonstration of an all-optical quantum controlled-NOT gate. Nature 426: 264–267.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pan G. W. 2003. Wavelets in Electromagnetics and Device Modeling. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Fox S. H. & Brotchie J. M. (eds) 2014. Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesia in Parkinson’s Disease. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Ohno K. 2008. Vegetation-geographic evaluation of the syntaxonomic system of valley-bottom forests occurring in the cooltemperate zone of the Japanese Archipelago. In: Ecology of Riparian Forests in Japan: Disturbance, Life History, and Regeneration (Ed. by H. Sakio & T. Tamura), pp. 49–72. Springer Japan, Tokyo.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diatom Research.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2015, May 27. Don’t Panic About The Pill – It’s Safer Than Driving To Work. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1997. Air Traffic Control: Improved Cost Information Needed to Make Billion Dollar Modernization Investment Decisions. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Davies G. L. 2015. An analysis of Pat Metheny’s and Lyle Mays’s ‘Third Wind’: Arranging techniques and performance considerations. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K. 2007, April 22. I’m a Lumber Jack (Omelet, That Is). New York Times: NJ6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Roberts 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Roberts 2006, Soundararajan & Aravamudan 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Soundararajan & Aravamudan 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (O’Brien et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleDiatom Research
AbbreviationDiatom Res.
ISSN (print)0269-249X
ISSN (online)2159-8347
ScopeAquatic Science

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