How to format your references using the Diatom Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diatom Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Komarova N. L. 2015. Cancer: A moving target. Nature 525: 198–199.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kronenberg M. & Rudensky A. 2005. Regulation of immunity by self-reactive T cells. Nature 435: 598–604.
A journal article with 3 authors
Meschke M., Guichard W. & Pekola J. P. 2006. Single-mode heat conduction by photons. Nature 444: 187–190.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Johnson N., Zhao G., Caycedo F., Manrique P., Qi H., Rodriguez F. & Quiroga L. 2013. Extreme alien light allows survival of terrestrial bacteria. Scientific reports 3: 2198.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Akcoglu M. A., Bartha P. F. A. & Ha D. M. 2009. Analysis in Vector Spaces. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Nagata Y. (ed) 2015. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy: Principles and Practices. Springer Japan, Tokyo.
A chapter in an edited book
Osipov A., Rokhlin V. & Xiao H. 2013. Analysis of the Integral Operator. In: Prolate Spheroidal Wave Functions of Order Zero: Mathematical Tools for Bandlimited Approximation (Ed. by V. Rokhlin & H. Xiao), pp. 135–169. Springer US, Boston, MA.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diatom Research.

Blog post
Davis J. 2015, August 19. FDA Approves ‘Female Viagra’ Pill. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1992. Customs Automation: Effectiveness of Entry Summary Selectivity System Is Unknown. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Klippel S. A. 2005. The Celtic siren: A case study of William Sharp’s seduction experience in which the numinous other is understood and interpreted. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. 2017, June 28. Their Run Together May Be Nearing an End. New York Times: B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Komarova 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Kronenberg & Rudensky 2005, Komarova 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kronenberg & Rudensky 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Johnson et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleDiatom Research
AbbreviationDiatom Res.
ISSN (print)0269-249X
ISSN (online)2159-8347
ScopeAquatic Science

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