How to format your references using the Diatom Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diatom Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Deichmann U. 2000. An unholy alliance. The Nazis showed that ‘politically responsible’ science risks losing its soul. Nature 405: 739.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang D. & Su G. 2014. New strategy to promote conversion efficiency using high-index nanostructures in thin-film solar cells. Scientific reports 4: 7165.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mugnier M. R., Cross G. A. M. & Papavasiliou F. N. 2015. The in vivo dynamics of antigenic variation in Trypanosoma brucei. Science (New York, N.Y.) 347: 1470–1473.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hood J. D., Bednarski M., Frausto R., Guccione S., Reisfeld R. A., Xiang R. & Cheresh D. A. 2002. Tumor regression by targeted gene delivery to the neovasculature. Science (New York, N.Y.) 296: 2404–2407.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Steele D. 2011. From Therapist to Coach. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Chen P. 2005. Optimal Control Models in Finance: A New Computational Approach. In: (S. M. N. Islam (ed))p.. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Kazar B. M. & Celik M. 2012. Comparing Exact and Approximate SAR Model Solutions. In: Spatial AutoRegression (SAR) Model: Parameter Estimation Techniques (Ed. by M. Celik), pp. 35–46. Springer US, Boston, MA.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diatom Research.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2015, March 4. The Science Of How These Twin Sisters Look So Different. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1996. Software Capability Evaluation: VA’s Software Development Process Is Immature. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alayed R. A. 2010. Creating a culture of safety using electronic medical records as a tool. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Witz B. 2017, March 15. A Button-Down Game Gets a Needed Pinch of Pizazz. New York Times: B18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Deichmann 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Deichmann 2000, Wang & Su 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wang & Su 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Hood et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleDiatom Research
AbbreviationDiatom Res.
ISSN (print)0269-249X
ISSN (online)2159-8347
ScopeAquatic Science

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