How to format your references using the Multilingual Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Multilingual Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Paine, Robert T. 2002. Trophic control of production in a rocky intertidal community. Science (New York, N.Y.) 296: 736–739.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lazazzera, Beth A., and Diarmaid Hughes. 2015. Genetics: Location affects sporulation. Nature 525: 42–43.
A journal article with 3 authors
George, A. M., J. Iñiguez, and L. Bellaiche. 2001. Anomalous properties in ferroelectrics induced by atomic ordering. Nature 413: 54–57.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Ahmad, Sahil, Sudheer Gupta, Rahul Kumar, Grish C. Varshney, and Gajendra P. S. Raghava. 2014. Herceptin resistance database for understanding mechanism of resistance in breast cancer patients. Scientific reports 4: 4483.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ahmad, Khalid. 2005. Sourcebook of ATM and IP Internetworking. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gilbert, John K., ed. 2005. Visualization in Science Education. Vol. 1. Models and Modeling in Science Education. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Artyukov, I. A., A. S. Busarov, N. L. Popov, and A. V. Vinogradov. 2014. Optical Transforms Related to Coherent Imaging of Inclined Objects. In X-Ray Lasers 2012: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, 11–15 June 2012, Paris, France, ed. Stéphane Sebban, Julien Gautier, David Ros, and Philippe Zeitoun, 19–27. Springer Proceedings in Physics. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Multilingual Education.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. 2016. Scientists Have Successfully Drilled Into The Dinosaur-Killing Impact Crater. IFLScience. IFLScience. May 4.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1989. Schedule Delays and Cost Overruns Plague DOD Automated Information Systems. T-IMTEC-89-8. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Milner, Marleen. 2009. An evaluation of the influence of case method instruction on the reflective thinking of MSW students. Doctoral dissertation, Tampa, FL: University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Protess, Ben, Andrew E. Kramer, and Mike McINTIRE. 2017. Bank in Kushner Meeting Wields Power for Kremlin. New York Times, June 5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Paine 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Paine 2002; Lazazzera and Hughes 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lazazzera and Hughes 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Ahmad et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleMultilingual Education
AbbreviationMultiling. Educ.
ISSN (online)2191-5059

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