How to format your references using the Multilingual Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Multilingual Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mészáros, P. 2001. Gamma-Ray bursts: accumulating afterglow implications, progenitor clues, and prospects. Science (New York, N.Y.) 291: 79–84.
A journal article with 2 authors
You, J. Q., and Franco Nori. 2011. Atomic physics and quantum optics using superconducting circuits. Nature 474: 589–597.
A journal article with 3 authors
Arantes-Oliveira, Nuno, Jennifer R. Berman, and Cynthia Kenyon. 2003. Healthy animals with extreme longevity. Science (New York, N.Y.) 302: 611.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Sancak, Yasemin, Timothy R. Peterson, Yoav D. Shaul, Robert A. Lindquist, Carson C. Thoreen, Liron Bar-Peled, and David M. Sabatini. 2008. The Rag GTPases bind raptor and mediate amino acid signaling to mTORC1. Science (New York, N.Y.) 320: 1496–1501.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rees, Paul A. 2011. An Introduction to Zoo Biology and Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Martella, Claudio. 2015. Practical Graph Analytics with Apache Giraph. Edited by Roman Shaposhnik and Dionysios Logothetis. Berkeley, CA: Apress.
A chapter in an edited book
Chilingaryan, Suren. 2009. The XMLBench Project: Comparison of Fast, Multi-platform XML libraries. In Database Systems for Advanced Applications: DASFAA 2009 International Workshops: BenchmarX, MCIS, WDPP, PPDA, MBC, PhD, Brisbane, Australia, April 20 - 23, 2009, ed. Lei Chen, Chengfei Liu, Qing Liu, and Ke Deng, 21–34. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Multilingual Education.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2016. Hundreds Of Bats Are Being Killed By Wind Turbines In The UK Every Month. IFLScience. IFLScience. November 8.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2004. Telecommunications: GSA Has Made Progress in Planning Governmentwide Program but Challenges Remain. GAO-04-1085T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
DeLutis-Eichenberger, Angela Nicole. 2010. El proceso semiótico de un héroe decimonónico: Un estudio en torno a los “textos-tumbas” de Andrés Bello. Doctoral dissertation, College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, Sophia. 2015. Europe; Azerbaijan: Journalist Critical of Leader Is Sentenced to 7 1/2 Years in Prison. New York Times, September 2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mészáros 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Mészáros 2001; You and Nori 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (You and Nori 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Sancak et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleMultilingual Education
AbbreviationMultiling. Educ.
ISSN (online)2191-5059

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