How to format your references using the Multilingual Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Multilingual Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wagner, Peter J. 2015. EVOLUTION. One era you are in—the next you are out. Science (New York, N.Y.) 350: 736–737.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bell, Alison M., and Gene E. Robinson. 2011. Genomics. Behavior and the dynamic genome. Science (New York, N.Y.) 332: 1161–1162.
A journal article with 3 authors
Griesinger, Claudius B., Christopher D. Richards, and Jonathan F. Ashmore. 2005. Fast vesicle replenishment allows indefatigable signalling at the first auditory synapse. Nature 435: 212–215.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Bustamante, Carlos D., Rasmus Nielsen, Stanley A. Sawyer, Kenneth M. Olsen, Michael D. Purugganan, and Daniel L. Hartl. 2002. The cost of inbreeding in Arabidopsis. Nature 416: 531–534.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Veasey, D. Alan, Lisa Craft McCormick, Barbara M. Hilyer, Kenneth W. Oldfield, Sam Hansen, and Theodore H. Krayer. 2005. Confined Space Entry and Emergency Response. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lee, Kun Sang. 2016. Integrative Understanding of Shale Gas Reservoirs. Edited by Tae Hong Kim. 1st ed. 2016. SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Pohl, Karl-Heinz. 2016. “Immanent Transcendence” in the Chinese Tradition: Remarks on a Chinese (and Sinological) Controversy. In Transcendence, Immanence, and Intercultural Philosophy, ed. Nahum Brown and William Franke, 103–123. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Multilingual Education.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2016. Hard Evidence: Spanking Could Lead To Health Problems, Antisocial Behavior. IFLScience. IFLScience. May 17.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2012. Batteries and Energy Storage: Federal Initiatives Supported Similar Technologies and Goals but Had Key Differences. GAO-12-842. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Noxon, Corey. 2017. Sedentism, Agriculture, and the Neolithic Demographic Transition: Insights from Jōmon Paleodemography. Doctoral dissertation, Boca Raton, FL: Florida Atlantic University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, John. 2016. HBO Renews 3 Series. New York Times, November 14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wagner 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Bell and Robinson 2011; Wagner 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bell and Robinson 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Bustamante et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleMultilingual Education
AbbreviationMultiling. Educ.
ISSN (online)2191-5059

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