How to format your references using the Multilingual Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Multilingual Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zhang, Wenxing. 2014. Voltage-driven spintronic logic gates in graphene nanoribbons. Scientific reports 4: 6320.
A journal article with 2 authors
Beasley, Anthony J., and Ethan J. Schreier. 2012. Astronomy: The United States must rejoin the SKA. Nature 489: 363.
A journal article with 3 authors
Basu, Paroma, Jane Qiu, and Kendall Powell. 2008. Making a difference. Nature 455: 1002–1003.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Organ, Chris L., Daniel E. Janes, Andrew Meade, and Mark Pagel. 2009. Genotypic sex determination enabled adaptive radiations of extinct marine reptiles. Nature 461: 389–392.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. 1999. Guidelines for Process Safety in Batch Reaction Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Dössel, Olaf, and Wolfgang C. Schlegel, ed. 2010. World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, September 7 - 12, 2009, Munich, Germany: Vol. 25/10 Biomaterials, Cellular and Tussue Engineering, Artificial Organs. Vol. 25/10. IFMBE Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Mandelkow, E-M, E. Thies, S. Konzack, and E. Mandelkow. 2009. Tau and Intracellular Transport in Neurons. In Intracellular Traffic and Neurodegenerative Disorders, ed. Peter H. St George-Hyslop, William C. C. Mobley, and Yves Christen, 59–70. Research and Perspectives in Alzheimer’s Disease. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Multilingual Education.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle. 2015. What Happens To Our Bodies After We Die? IFLScience. IFLScience. January 3.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2016. Social Security Administration: Effective Planning and Management Practices Are Key to Overcoming IT Modernization Challenges. GAO-16-815T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bennett, Cynthia Ann. 2012. The stigma of mental illness as experienced by mental health professionals as patients: A phenomenological study. Doctoral dissertation, Carpinteria, CA: Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, Linda. 2007. Nation’s ‘First Suburb’ Aims to Be Most ‘Green.’ New York Times, December 16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zhang 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Beasley and Schreier 2012; Zhang 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Beasley and Schreier 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Organ et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleMultilingual Education
AbbreviationMultiling. Educ.
ISSN (online)2191-5059

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