How to format your references using the Multilingual Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Multilingual Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lawrence, Peter A. 2004. Last hideout of the unknown? Nature 429: 247.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kasparian, Jérôme, and Jean-Pierre Wolf. 2009. Applied physics. Laser beams take a curve. Science (New York, N.Y.) 324: 194–195.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rao, Jampani Nageswara, Yadaiah Madasu, and Roberto Dominguez. 2014. Mechanism of actin filament pointed-end capping by tropomodulin. Science (New York, N.Y.) 345: 463–467.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Gardner, Timothy S., Diego di Bernardo, David Lorenz, and James J. Collins. 2003. Inferring genetic networks and identifying compound mode of action via expression profiling. Science (New York, N.Y.) 301: 102–105.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Akers, R. Michael. 2016. Lactation and the Mammary Gland. Ames, Iowa: Blackwell Publishing Company.
An edited book
Lu, Chang, and Scott S. Verbridge, ed. 2016. Microfluidic Methods for Molecular Biology. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Ghazzai, Hakim, Elias Yaacoub, Abdullah Kadri, and Mohamed-Slim Alouini. 2016. Multi-operator Collaboration for Green Cellular Networks. In Energy Management in Wireless Cellular and Ad-hoc Networks, ed. Muhammad Zeeshan Shakir, Muhammad Ali Imran, Khalid A. Qaraqe, Mohamed-Slim Alouini, and Athanasios V. Vasilakos, 97–122. Studies in Systems, Decision and Control. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Multilingual Education.

Blog post
Hamilton, Kristy. 2016. Memory And Attention Are Affected By Much Lower Levels Of Dehydration Than Previously Thought. IFLScience. IFLScience. August 16.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1995. GAO Education Products. HEHS-95-72R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gonzalez, Erika R. 2015. Technology and adiposity: Effects of television time, video or computer game time, and computer use on body fat among Latino youth. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Jorden, James. 2017. Scaling the Everest of Opera. New York Times, September 20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lawrence 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Lawrence 2004; Kasparian and Wolf 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kasparian and Wolf 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Gardner et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleMultilingual Education
AbbreviationMultiling. Educ.
ISSN (online)2191-5059

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