How to format your references using the Multilingual Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Multilingual Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Weinstock, George M. 2012. Genomic approaches to studying the human microbiota. Nature 489: 250–256.
A journal article with 2 authors
Onishi, Kristine H., and Renée Baillargeon. 2005. Do 15-month-old infants understand false beliefs? Science (New York, N.Y.) 308: 255–258.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kim, Junil, Sang-Min Park, and Kwang-Hyun Cho. 2013. Discovery of a kernel for controlling biomolecular regulatory networks. Scientific reports 3: 2223.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Tomatsu, K., K. Nakatsuji, T. Iimori, Y. Takagi, H. Kusuhara, A. Ishii, and F. Komori. 2007. An atomic seesaw switch formed by tilted asymmetric Sn-Ge dimers on a Ge (001) surface. Science (New York, N.Y.) 315: 1696–1698.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Good, Phillip I. 2013. Introduction to Statistics Through Resampling Methods and R. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Solé-Casals, Jordi, and Vladimir Zaiats, ed. 2010. Advances in Nonlinear Speech Processing: International Conference on Nonlinear Speech Processing, NOLISP 2009, Vic, Spain, June 25-27. Revised Selected Papers. Vol. 5933. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Stanescu, Liana, Dumitru Dan Burdescu, Marius Brezovan, and Cristian Gabriel Mihai. 2012. Ontologies. In Creating New Medical Ontologies for Image Annotation: A Case Study, ed. Dumitru Dan Burdescu, Marius Brezovan, and Cristian Gabriel Mihai, 45–64. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Multilingual Education.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. 2017. Rocky Planets Can Form In Binary Systems. IFLScience. IFLScience. February 27.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2016. Public Transit: Observations on Recent Changes to the Capital Investment Grant Program. GAO-16-495. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dunn, Denise Nicole. 2015. Non-Athlete Students’ Attitudes toward Student-Athletes: A Social Identity Approach. Doctoral dissertation, Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, Mary. 2014. A Closet Is the Highest Form of Flattery. New York Times, February 6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Weinstock 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Onishi and Baillargeon 2005; Weinstock 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Onishi and Baillargeon 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Tomatsu et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleMultilingual Education
AbbreviationMultiling. Educ.
ISSN (online)2191-5059

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