How to format your references using the Gastrointestinal Tumors citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gastrointestinal Tumors. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
MacLeod K. The Oort crowd. Nature. 2000 Jul;406(6792):129.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kirkwood TB, Austad SN. Why do we age? Nature. 2000 Nov;408(6809):233–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Green SP, Jones C, Stasch A. Stable magnesium(I) compounds with Mg-Mg bonds. Science. 2007 Dec;318(5857):1754–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Haeussner E, Buehlmeyer A, Schmitz C, von Koch FE, Frank H-G. Novel 3D microscopic analysis of human placental villous trees reveals unexpected significance of branching angles. Sci Rep. 2014 Aug;4:6192.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morris M. Concise Dictionary of Social and Cultural Anthropology. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
Ichikawa H, Cho W-D, Satoh I, Youn HY, editors. Ubiquitous Computing Systems: 4th International Symposium, UCS 2007, Tokyo, Japan, November 25-28, 2007. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Borges JS, Bioucas-Dias JM, Marçal ARS. Bayesian Hyperspectral Image Segmentation with Discriminative Class Learning. In: Martí J, Benedí JM, Mendonça AM, Serrat J, editors. Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis: Third Iberian Conference, IbPRIA 2007, Girona, Spain, June 6-8, 2007, Proceedings, Part I. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007; pp 22–9.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gastrointestinal Tumors.

Blog post
Andrew E. Unravelling The Mysteries Of Sleep: How The Brain ‘Sees’ Dreams [Internet]. IFLScience. 2015 Aug [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: Additional Actions and Oversight Urgently Needed to Reduce Waste and Improve Performance in Acquisitions and Operations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vianna MH. An exploration of the factors that influence Brazilian students’ fluency of English: A case study. 2015

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. A 96-Team Tournament? Now That’s Madness. New York Times. 2010 Mar;SP6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGastrointestinal Tumors
AbbreviationGastrointest. Tumors
ISSN (print)2296-3774
ISSN (online)2296-3766

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