How to format your references using the Gastrointestinal Tumors citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gastrointestinal Tumors. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sherwood Lollar B: Geochemistry. Life’s chemical kitchen. Science 2004;304:972–973.
A journal article with 2 authors
Morton JJL, Mølmer K: Quantum information: Spin memories in for the long haul. Nature 2015;517:153–154.
A journal article with 3 authors
Singh PK, Hopwood J, Sonkusale S: Metamaterials for remote generation of spatially controllable two dimensional array of microplasma. Sci Rep 2014;4:5964.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
El Gabaly F, Ling WLW, McCarty KF, de la Figuera J: The importance of threading dislocations on the motion of domain boundaries in thin films. Science 2005;308:1303–1305.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tourlakis G: Mathematical Logic. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2008.
An edited book
Schneider Beck Fl. AC: Dynamic Reconfigurable Architectures and Transparent Optimization Techniques: Automatic Acceleration of Software Execution. Dordrecht, Springer Netherlands, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Bennett L: Topical Versus Systemic Ocular Drug Delivery; in Addo RT (ed): Ocular Drug Delivery: Advances, Challenges and Applications. Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp 53–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gastrointestinal Tumors.

Blog post
Andrews R: Climate Change Is Going To Cost Us – Literally. IFLScience 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Highway Trust Fund Excise Taxes. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gwaduri E: A personal narrative: Struggles and experiences of acculturation as a Pakistani Shia Muslim while battling immigration 2009;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Jacoby S: Keep the Gates of Paradise Open. New York Times 2013;SR9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGastrointestinal Tumors
AbbreviationGastrointest. Tumors
ISSN (print)2296-3774
ISSN (online)2296-3766

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