How to format your references using the Biophysics Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biophysics Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Carroll SB (2011) Evolution. How great wings can look alike. Science 333:1100–1101
A journal article with 2 authors
Konstantinides N, Averof M (2014) A common cellular basis for muscle regeneration in arthropods and vertebrates. Science 343:788–791
A journal article with 3 authors
Dean R, Bonsall MB, Pizzari T (2007) Evolution. Aging and sexual conflict. Science 316:383–384
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Seo JS, Whang D, Lee H, et al (2000) A homochiral metal-organic porous material for enantioselective separation and catalysis. Nature 404:982–986

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bragg SM (2010) Running an Effective Investor Relations Department. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Boos N, Aebi M (eds) (2008) Spinal Disorders: Fundamentals of Diagnosis and Treatment. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Humphreys P, McIvor R (2005) Knowledge-Based Systems Technology in the Make or Buy Decision in Manufacturing Strategy. In: Leondes CT (ed) Intelligent Knowledge-Based Systems: Business and Technology in the New Millennium. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 83–109

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biophysics Reports.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) Mummification Started More Than A Millennium Earlier Than We Thought. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1981) The Centralizing Effects of Austerity on the Intergovernmental System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dickens JR (2011) The experience of recovery from alcohol/drugs (AOD). Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M (1992) G.O.P.’s Young Confrontation Corps. New York Times A17

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Carroll 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Carroll 2011; Konstantinides and Averof 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Konstantinides and Averof 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Seo et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleBiophysics Reports
AbbreviationBiophys. Rep.
ISSN (print)2364-3439
ISSN (online)2364-3420

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