How to format your references using the Psychological Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychological Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Downer, J. (2001). A tortured tale of supply and demand. Nature, 410(6829), 624.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hörber, J. K. H., & Miles, M. J. (2003). Scanning probe evolution in biology. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5647), 1002–1005.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tenenbaum, J. B., de Silva, V., & Langford, J. C. (2000). A global geometric framework for nonlinear dimensionality reduction. Science (New York, N.Y.), 290(5500), 2319–2323.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Berriman, A. C., Hinde, D. J., Dasgupta, M., Morton, C. R., Butt, R. D., & Newton, J. O. (2001). Unexpected inhibition of fusion in nucleus-nucleus collisions. Nature, 413(6852), 144–147.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ahmad, S. R., & Cartwright, M. (2014). Laser Ignition of Energetic Materials. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Jankowich, M., & Gartman, E. (Eds.). (2015). Ultrasound in the Intensive Care Unit. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Güneysu, T., Oder, T., Pöppelmann, T., & Schwabe, P. (2013). Software Speed Records for Lattice-Based Signatures. In P. Gaborit (Ed.), Post-Quantum Cryptography: 5th International Workshop, PQCrypto 2013, Limoges, France, June 4-7, 2013. Proceedings (pp. 67–82). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychological Research.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015, November 16). Women Twice As Likely To Die From Causes Related To Pregnancy And Childbirth In America Than In Canada. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1972). Teacher Corps Programs Operated by the Buffalo State University College, the New York University, and the Harlem Institute for Teachers (No. 089472). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Timko, E. J. (2017). Polynomial Tuples of Commuting Isometries Constrained by 1-Dimensional Varieties (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kanter, J. (2017, January 31). Under Trump, U.S. Is Now a Threat to Europe’s Stability, Leader Warns. New York Times, p. A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Downer 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Downer 2001; Hörber and Miles 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hörber and Miles 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Berriman et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychological Research
AbbreviationPsychol. Res.
ISSN (print)0340-0727
ISSN (online)1430-2772
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
General Medicine
Developmental and Educational Psychology
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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