How to format your references using the Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kyewski B. Immunology. A breath of Aire for the periphery.Science 2008; 321: 776–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Crowley TJ, Hyde WT. Transient nature of late Pleistocene climate variability.Nature 2008; 456: 226–30.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wigginton N, Yeston J, Malakoff D. Working with waste. More treasure than trash. Introduction.Science 2012; 337: 662–3.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Russell RJ, Haire LF, Stevens DJ, Collins PJ, Lin YP, Blackburn GM, Hay AJ, Gamblin SJ, Skehel JJ. The structure of H5N1 avian influenza neuraminidase suggests new opportunities for drug design.Nature 2006; 443: 45–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bucci D. Analog Electronics for Measuring Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2017. .
An edited book
Cuzzocrea A, Maabout S, editors. Model and Data Engineering: Third International Conference, MEDI 2013, Amantea, Italy, September 25-27, 2013. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2013. .
A chapter in an edited book
Gronenborn AM. Anything Goes – Protein Structural Polymorphism. In: Puglisi J, editor. Structure and Biophysics – New Technologies for Current Challenges in Biology and Beyond. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2007. ; 41–7.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica.

Blog post
Fang J. Humpback Whales No Longer Threatened? [Internet].IFLScience 2014 Apr 23 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Administration of Federal Support of Shore Facilities and Vessels for Research Activities at Oceanographic Institutions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1970.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Richards O. Teachers’ Perceptions About the Value of Culturally Relevant Pedagogy: A Case Study. 2017

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kanter J. E.U. Endorses Guidelines to Negotiate ‘Brexit.’New York Times 2017; A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleActa Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
AbbreviationActa Anaesthesiol. Scand.
ISSN (print)0001-5172
ISSN (online)1399-6576
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

Other styles