How to format your references using the Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lipton P. Testing hypotheses: prediction and prejudice. Science 2005; 307: 219–21.
A journal article with 2 authors
Binder P-M, Pipes RM. Applied mathematics: how chaos forgets and remembers. Nature 2014; 510: 343–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Putnam CD, Hayes TK, Kolodner RD. Specific pathways prevent duplication-mediated genome rearrangements. Nature 2009; 460: 984–9.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Xu W, Shang Y, Zhu P, Zhai Z, He J, Huang K, Luo Y. Randomly broken fragment PCR with 5’ end-directed adaptor for genome walking. Sci Rep 2013; 3: 3465.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lavagnini I, Magno F, Seraglia R, Traldi P. Quantitative Applications of Mass Spectrometry. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2006. .
An edited book
Romanowska J. Developing Leadership and Employee Health Through the Arts: Improving Leader-Employee Relationships. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016. .
A chapter in an edited book
McGregor MN. The Language of Spiritual Literature in a Post-Religious Era. In: Garcia K, editor. Reexamining Academic Freedom in Religiously Affiliated Universities: Transcending Orthodoxies. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016. ; 87–96.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica.

Blog post
Carpineti C. Check Out The Ingenious Way This Seal Manages To Avoid Hungry Orcas [Internet]. IFLScience 2017 Mar 21 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information on the Requirement for Strategic Airlift. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grosso T. Exploring How Older Adults Who Qualify for the Association on Aging with Developmental Disabilities (AADD) Programs and Services Learn to Successfully Age in Place. 2015

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Slotnik DE. Greg Marius, 59, Impresario of Harlem Street Ball. New York Times 2017; B16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleActa Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
AbbreviationActa Anaesthesiol. Scand.
ISSN (print)0001-5172
ISSN (online)1399-6576
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

Other styles