How to format your references using the Journal of Primary Health Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Primary Health Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Parker T. Sustainable energy: Cutting science’s electricity bill. Nature. 2011 Dec 14;480(7377):315–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schwartz JH, Tattersall I. ANTHROPOLOGY. Defining the genus Homo. Science. 2015 Aug 28;349(6251):931–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Plerou V, Gopikrishnan P, Stanley HE. Econophysics: Two-phase behaviour of financial markets. Nature. 2003 Jan 9;421(6919):130.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Harris AC, Kamenetsky VS, White NC, van Achterbergh E, Ryan CG. Melt inclusions in veins: linking magmas and porphyry Cu deposits. Science. 2003 Dec 19;302(5653):2109–11.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Meyer VR. Pitfalls and Errors of HPLC in Pictures. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2013.
An edited book
Jiang R, Zhang X, Zhang MQ, editors. Basics of Bioinformatics: Lecture Notes of the Graduate Summer School on Bioinformatics of China. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. XIX, 395 p. 123 illus.
A chapter in an edited book
Dobkin PL, Hassed CS. How Mindfulness Has Been Integrated into Three Medical School Curriculums. In: Hassed CS, editor. Mindful Medical Practitioners: A Guide for Clinicians and Educators. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 43–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Primary Health Care.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Ancient Asteroid Impacts Yield Evidence For The Nature Of The Early Earth [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Customs Service Modernization: Actions Initiated to Correct ACE Management and Technical Weaknesses. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999 May. Report No.: T-AIMD-99-186.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Krauss WF. The role of a middle management team during a directed restructuring: A case study of a government agency using Stones’ strong structuration [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B. Lemon. New York Times. 2017 Aug 23;C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,1).
This sentence cites four references (1,1,1,1).

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Primary Health Care
AbbreviationJ. Prim. Health Care
ISSN (print)1172-6164
ISSN (online)1172-6156
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles