How to format your references using the Journal of Primary Health Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Primary Health Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Filippelli G. Oceans. A salty start to modern ocean circulation. Science. 2014 Jun 13;344(6189):1228–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Radisky DC, Bissell MJ. Cancer. Respect thy neighbor! Science. 2004 Feb 6;303(5659):775–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Song T-RA, Helmberger DV, Grand SP. Low-velocity zone atop the 410-km seismic discontinuity in the northwestern United States. Nature. 2004 Feb 5;427(6974):530–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lachke SA, Alkuraya FS, Kneeland SC, Ohn T, Aboukhalil A, Howell GR, et al. Mutations in the RNA granule component TDRD7 cause cataract and glaucoma. Science. 2011 Mar 25;331(6024):1571–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Southard TE, Marshall SD, Bonner LL. Orthodontics in the Vertical Dimension. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
Sekkat K, editor. Market Dynamics and Productivity in Developing Countries: Economic Reforms in the Middle East and North Africa. New York, NY: Springer; 2010. IX, 164 p. 24 illus.
A chapter in an edited book
Kwa C, van Hemert M, van der Weij L. Visualising Landscapes: Do Pictures Represent Theory or Data? In: Scholten HJ, Velde R van de, Manen N van, editors. Geospatial Technology and the Role of Location in Science. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2009. p. 47–58. (Sui DZ, Tietze W, Claval P, Gradus Y, Park SO, van der Wusten H, editors. GeoJournal Library).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Primary Health Care.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Remains Of Ancient Star Cluster Found In Milky Way’s Heart [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transition From School to Work: S. 1361 Addresses Components of Comprehensive Strategy. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993 Sep. Report No.: T-HRD-93-31.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fan H-T. Design of delta operator based decision feedback equalizer for high-speed backplane data communication [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kerry J. What We Got Right. New York Times. 2017 Jan 19;A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Primary Health Care
AbbreviationJ. Prim. Health Care
ISSN (print)1172-6164
ISSN (online)1172-6156
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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