How to format your references using the Journal of Primary Health Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Primary Health Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Collins F. Has the revolution arrived? Nature. 2010 Apr 1;464(7289):674–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kinbara K, Aida T. Chemistry. From electron pump to proton channel. Science. 2006 Jul 7;313(5783):51–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mullen KT, Kim YJ, Gheiratmand M. Contrast normalization in colour vision: the effect of luminance contrast on colour contrast detection. Sci Rep. 2014 Dec 10;4:7350.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kefalov V, Fu Y, Marsh-Armstrong N, Yau K-W. Role of visual pigment properties in rod and cone phototransduction. Nature. 2003 Oct 2;425(6957):526–31.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hamad WY. Cellulose Nanocrystals. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
Pfaff DW, Christen Y, editors. Multiple Origins of Sex Differences in Brain: Neuroendocrine Functions and their Pathologies. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. XIII, 181 p. 37 illus., 17 illus. in color. (Research and Perspectives in Endocrine Interactions).
A chapter in an edited book
Bellin-Mularski N, Mah D-K, Ifenthaler D. Pre-Service Teachers’ Perceptions of School Development. In: Spector JM, Ifenthaler D, Sampson DG, Isaias P, editors. Competencies in Teaching, Learning and Educational Leadership in the Digital Age: Papers from CELDA 2014. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 57–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Primary Health Care.

Blog post
Andrew E. Earthquakes, Superstorms … And Other Little-Known Perils Of Climate Change [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space Shuttle: NASA’s Major Changes to Flight Hardware. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988 Jun. Report No.: NSIAD-88-173FS.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bradford A. Internationalization Policy at the Genba: Exploring the Implementation of Social Science English-Taught Undergraduate Degree Programs in Three Japanese Universities [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Otis J. Positive Outlook in the Face of Cancer and Grief. New York Times. 2016 Dec 5;A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Primary Health Care
AbbreviationJ. Prim. Health Care
ISSN (print)1172-6164
ISSN (online)1172-6156
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles