How to format your references using the Journal of Primary Health Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Primary Health Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hwang WC. Journal club. A structural biologist has great expectations for llamas’ small antibodies. Nature. 2009 May 21;459(7245):303.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sprecher SG, Desplan C. Switch of rhodopsin expression in terminally differentiated Drosophila sensory neurons. Nature. 2008 Jul 24;454(7203):533–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fan Y, Li H, Miguez-Macho G. Global patterns of groundwater table depth. Science. 2013 Feb 22;339(6122):940–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Gajiwala KS, Chen H, Cornille F, Roques BP, Reith W, Mach B, et al. Structure of the winged-helix protein hRFX1 reveals a new mode of DNA binding. Nature. 2000 Feb 24;403(6772):916–21.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cooper N, Forrest K, Cramp P. Essential Guide to Generic Skills. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
Houkes W. Technical Functions: On the Use and Design of Artefacts. Vermaas PE, editor. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010. VIII, 174 p. (Philosophy of Engineering and Technology; vol. 1).
A chapter in an edited book
Morschett D, Schramm-Klein H, Zentes J. Motives for Internationalisation. In: Schramm-Klein H, Zentes J, editors. Strategic International Management: Text and Cases. Wiesbaden: Gabler; 2009. p. 71–91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Primary Health Care.

Blog post
Andrew E. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014. How Virtual Reality Can Help Treat Sex Offenders.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. F-22 Aircraft: Progress of the Engineering and Manufacturing Development Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998 Mar. Report No.: T-NSIAD-98-137.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barrios G. Outreach program to address the unmet needs of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dewan S, Schwartz J. Comparing Harvey With Katrina. New York Times. 2017 Aug 28;A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Primary Health Care
AbbreviationJ. Prim. Health Care
ISSN (print)1172-6164
ISSN (online)1172-6156
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles