How to format your references using the Journal of Primary Health Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Primary Health Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brown GC. Cell biology. NO says yes to mitochondria. Science. 2003 Feb 7;299(5608):838–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dillin A, Kelly JW. Medicine. The yin-yang of sirtuins. Science. 2007 Jul 27;317(5837):461–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang L, Baade D, Patat F. Spectropolarimetric diagnostics of thermonuclear supernova explosions. Science. 2007 Jan 12;315(5809):212–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Keizer RS, Goennenwein STB, Klapwijk TM, Miao G, Xiao G, Gupta A. A spin triplet supercurrent through the half-metallic ferromagnet CrO2. Nature. 2006 Feb 16;439(7078):825–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
May V, Kühn O. Charge and Energy Transfer Dynamics in Molecular Systems. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH; 2007.
An edited book
Schmidt MG. The Rise and Fall of a Socialist Welfare State: The German Democratic Republic (1949-1990) and German Unification (1989-1994). Ritter GA, editor. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. XVI, 308 p. (German Social Policy; vol. 4).
A chapter in an edited book
Alapati SR, Kuhn D, Padfield B. Monitoring System Performance. In: Kuhn D, Padfield B, editors. Oracle Database 11g Performance Tuning Recipes: A Problem-Solution Approach. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2011. p. 113–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Primary Health Care.

Blog post
Fang J. Mysterious Plumes On Mars Baffle Astronomers [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. District of Columbia Government: Overtime Costs Exceed Those of Neighboring Governments. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997 Sep. Report No.: GGD-97-159BR.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reese SR. Transitioning to the oboe: Methods and resources to assist in switching to the oboe from other woodwind instruments [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Harris EA. Walking Away, Quietly. New York Times. 2014 Jun 5;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Primary Health Care
AbbreviationJ. Prim. Health Care
ISSN (print)1172-6164
ISSN (online)1172-6156
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles