How to format your references using the Journal of Primary Health Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Primary Health Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grayson M. Chemistry masterclass. Nature. 2013 Oct 17;502(7471):S49.
A journal article with 2 authors
Carbone FR, Gebhardt T. Immunology. A neighborhood watch upholds local immune protection. Science. 2014 Oct 3;346(6205):40–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hulme M, O’Neill SJ, Dessai S. Climate change. Is weather event attribution necessary for adaptation funding? Science. 2011 Nov 11;334(6057):764–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wu L, Bauer CS, Zhen X-G, Xie C, Yang J. Dual regulation of voltage-gated calcium channels by PtdIns(4,5)P2. Nature. 2002 Oct 31;419(6910):947–52.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gardner S, Birley S. Blogging for Dummies®. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Zuccon G, Geva S, Joho H, Scholer F, Sun A, Zhang P, editors. Information Retrieval Technology: 11th Asia Information Retrieval Societies Conference, AIRS 2015, Brisbane, QLD, Australia, December 2-4, 2015. Proceedings. 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. XVIII, 454 p. 84 illus. in color. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 9460).
A chapter in an edited book
Deng X, Wang Y, Wu F, Zhang T, Li Z. The Integrated CGE Model Construction. In: Wang Y, Wu F, Zhang T, Li Z, editors. Integrated River Basin Management: Practice Guideline for the IO Table Compilation and CGE Modeling. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014. p. 57–78. (SpringerBriefs in Environmental Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Primary Health Care.

Blog post
Andrew E. Inside The Colorful World Of Animal Vision [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Science Indicators: Improvements Needed in Design, Construction, and Interpretation. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979 Sep. Report No.: PAD-79-35.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Djajalaksana YM. A National Survey of Instructional Strategies Used to Teach Information Systems Courses: An Exploratory Investigation [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tampa, FL]: University of South Florida; 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Crow K. Sealed Since ’88, A Condo Garage May Soon See Some Daylight. New York Times. 2001 May 6;144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Primary Health Care
AbbreviationJ. Prim. Health Care
ISSN (print)1172-6164
ISSN (online)1172-6156
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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