How to format your references using the Psychological Injury and Law citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychological Injury and Law. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pain, E. (2008). Science careers. Playing well with industry. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5869), 1548–1551.
A journal article with 2 authors
Banfield, J. F., & Young, M. (2009). Microbiology. Variety--the splice of life--in microbial communities. Science (New York, N.Y.), 326(5957), 1198–1199.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ammon, C. J., Kanamori, H., & Lay, T. (2008). A great earthquake doublet and seismic stress transfer cycle in the central Kuril islands. Nature, 451(7178), 561–565.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Danovaro, R., Dell’Anno, A., Corinaldesi, C., Magagnini, M., Noble, R., Tamburini, C., & Weinbauer, M. (2008). Major viral impact on the functioning of benthic deep-sea ecosystems. Nature, 454(7208), 1084–1087.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
He, J., Zeng, R., & Zhang, B. (2012). Methodology and Technology for Power System Grounding. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd.
An edited book
Serpe, M. J., Kang, Y., & Zhang, Q. M. (Eds.). (2016). Photonic Materials for Sensing, Biosensing and Display Devices (1st ed. 2016., Vol. 229). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Sarcar, P., Basu, S., & Ghosh, A. (2015). Broadband Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antennas for K and EHF Bands. In K. Maharatna, G. K. Dalapati, P. K. Banerjee, A. K. Mallick, & M. Mukherjee (Eds.), Computational Advancement in Communication Circuits and Systems: Proceedings of ICCACCS 2014 (pp. 29–37). New Delhi: Springer India.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychological Injury and Law.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2016, November 16). Sea Sponges Show The Way To Cancer Treatment With Fewer Side-Effects. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1996). Programs for Land-Grant Schools (No. HEHS-96-91R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Karriem, K. L. (2010). The relationship between stress and emotional intelligence among direct-care workers (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G. G. (2015, December 4). A Comic Book in the Company of Masterpieces. New York Times, p. C32.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pain 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Banfield and Young 2009; Pain 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Banfield and Young 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Danovaro et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychological Injury and Law
AbbreviationPsychol. Inj. Law
ISSN (print)1938-971X
ISSN (online)1938-9728
Psychiatry and Mental health

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