How to format your references using the Psychological Injury and Law citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychological Injury and Law. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jensen, M. H. (2002). Obituary: Per Bak (1947-2002). Nature, 420(6913), 284.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rizki, A., & Lundblad, V. (2001). Defects in mismatch repair promote telomerase-independent proliferation. Nature, 411(6838), 713–716.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, X., Chen, X., & Wang, L. (2014). Random allocation of pies promotes the evolution of fairness in the Ultimatum Game. Scientific reports, 4, 4534.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Horiuchi, S., Okimoto, Y., Kumai, R., & Tokura, Y. (2003). Quantum phase transition in organic charge-transfer complexes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5604), 229–232.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Padilla, E. (2015). Substation Automation Systems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Freiesleben Hansen, P. (2009). The Science of Construction Materials. (O. M. Jensen, Ed.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Isakson, H. R., & Sproles, S. (2008). A Brief History of Native American Land Ownership. In G. Small, R. M. Malmgren, & R. A. Simons (Eds.), Indigenous Peoples and Real Estate Valuation (pp. 63–75). Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychological Injury and Law.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016, July 20). How Well You Do In School Depends More On Your DNA Than Your Determination, Study Finds. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2005). Airport and Airway Trust Fund: Preliminary Observations on Past, Present, and Future (No. GAO-05-657T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lee, D. (2010). Subjective strain, anger, and delinquency: Evidence from South Korea (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, S. (2002, June 21). Op-Art. New York Times, p. A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jensen 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Jensen 2002; Rizki and Lundblad 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rizki and Lundblad 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Horiuchi et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychological Injury and Law
AbbreviationPsychol. Inj. Law
ISSN (print)1938-971X
ISSN (online)1938-9728
Psychiatry and Mental health

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