How to format your references using the Psychological Injury and Law citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychological Injury and Law. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Parham, P. (2003). Innate immunity: The unsung heroes. Nature, 423(6935), 20.
A journal article with 2 authors
Carter, L. J., & Pigford, T. H. (2005). Nuclear waste. Proof of safety at Yucca Mountain. Science (New York, N.Y.), 310(5747), 447–448.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dai, X., Chen, A., & Bai, Z. (2014). Integrative investigation on breast cancer in ER, PR and HER2-defined subgroups using mRNA and miRNA expression profiling. Scientific reports, 4, 6566.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Choi, D., Jang, Y., Lee, J., Jeong, G. H., Whang, D., Hwang, S. W., et al. (2014). Diameter-controlled and surface-modified Sb₂Se₃ nanowires and their photodetector performance. Scientific reports, 4, 6714.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dean, J. R. (2005). Practical Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectroscopy: Dean/Plasma. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Ismail-Zadeh, A. (2016). Data-Driven Numerical Modelling in Geodynamics: Methods and Applications. (A. Korotkii & I. Tsepelev, Eds.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Karkin, N., Koseoglu, O., & Sobaci, M. Z. (2015). Social Media Policy in Turkish Municipalities: Disparity Between Awareness and Implementation. In S. Nepal, C. Paris, & D. Georgakopoulos (Eds.), Social Media for Government Services (pp. 97–113). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychological Injury and Law.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, January 22). Regular Coffee Consumption May Help Protect Against A Form Of Skin Cancer. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2005). Aviation Security: Screener Training and Performance Measurement Strengthened, but More Work Remains (No. GAO-05-457). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Smith, S. M. (2017). The Relationship Between Political Affiliation and Student Achievement in the Areas of Reading and Mathematics, with Respect to Black Students (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. (2017, June 8). Poetic Spark of a Combustible Iraq Veteran. New York Times, p. C7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Parham 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Carter and Pigford 2005; Parham 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Carter and Pigford 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Choi et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychological Injury and Law
AbbreviationPsychol. Inj. Law
ISSN (print)1938-971X
ISSN (online)1938-9728
Psychiatry and Mental health

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