How to format your references using the Academic Questions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Academic Questions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kuypers, Marcel M. M. 2007. Microbiology. Sizing up the uncultivated majority. Science (New York, N.Y.) 317: 1510–1511.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vaquero, Luis M., and Manuel Cebrian. 2013. The rich club phenomenon in the classroom. Scientific reports 3: 1174.
A journal article with 3 authors
Burkett, Virginia, C. G. Groat, and Denise Reed. 2007. Hurricanes not the key to a sustainable coast. Science (New York, N.Y.) 315: 1366–1368.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Shang, Yonggang, Chengcheng Liu, Dong Cui, Guangwei Han, and Shanhong Yi. 2014. The effect of chronic bacterial prostatitis on semen quality in adult men: a meta-analysis of case-control studies. Scientific reports 4: 7233.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Strachman, Daniel, and Richard Bookbinder. 2009. Fund of Funds Investing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Joule, John A., ed. 2015. Thiophenes. Vol. 39. Topics in Heterocyclic Chemistry. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Gepts, Paul, Francisco J. L. Aragão, Everaldo de Barros, Matthew W. Blair, Rosana Brondani, William Broughton, Incoronata Galasso, et al. 2008. Genomics of Phaseolus Beans, a Major Source of Dietary Protein and Micronutrients in the Tropics. In Genomics of Tropical Crop Plants, ed. Paul H. Moore and Ray Ming, 113–143. Plant Genetics and Genomics: Crops and Models. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Academic Questions.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2016. Tiny Marine Creatures Reveal The Environmental Limits To Diversity. IFLScience. IFLScience. June 14.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1989. Student Athletes: Information on Their Academic Performance. HRD-89-107FS. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tian, Chao Yue. 2010. Studies of equilibrium conditions in housing markets. Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Werdigier, Julia. 2008. BP Says Talks With Venture Investors Continue. New York Times, June 12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAcademic Questions
AbbreviationAcad. Quest.
ISSN (print)0895-4852
ISSN (online)1936-4709

Other styles