How to format your references using the Academic Questions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Academic Questions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nobrega, Marcelo A. 2010. Journal club. A human geneticist explores the ways that genes are regulated. Nature 466: 11.
A journal article with 2 authors
Huberman, Andrew D., and Rana N. El-Danaf. 2015. Blindness: Assassins of eyesight. Nature 527: 456–457.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee, Jennifer Y., Jeffrey A. Engelman, and Lewis C. Cantley. 2007. Biochemistry. PI3K charges ahead. Science (New York, N.Y.) 317: 206–207.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Lee, Tatia M. C., Mei-Kei Leung, Tiffany M. Y. Lee, Adrian Raine, and Chetwyn C. H. Chan. 2013. I want to lie about not knowing you, but my precuneus refuses to cooperate. Scientific reports 3: 1636.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Feldkamp, Frederick L., and R. Christopher Whalen. 2014. Financial Stability. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Matloff, Greg. 2014. Harvesting Space for a Greener Earth. Edited by C. Bangs and Les Johnson. 2nd ed. 2014. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Rondeau, Mathieu, Nicolas Seube, and Julian Le Denuf. 2016. Surveying in Hostile and Non Accessible Areas with the Bathymetric HydroBall $$^{\circledR }$$ ® Buoy. In Quantitative Monitoring of the Underwater Environment: Results of the International Marine Science and Technology Event MOQESM´14 in Brest, France, ed. Benoît Zerr, Luc Jaulin, Vincent Creuze, Nathalie Debese, Isabelle Quidu, Benoît Clement, and Annick Billon-Coat, 47–56. Ocean Engineering & Oceanography. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Academic Questions.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. 2017. Daphnis Making Waves In Saturn’s Rings. IFLScience. IFLScience. January 18.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1996. Job Corps: Comparison of Federal Program With State Youth Training Initiatives. HEHS-96-92. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Williams, Belinda. 2017. The Impact on Reunification for Families with Incarcerated Parents: A Policy Analysis of the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, Kelly. 2001. As Plans for Marsh Dry Up, Park’s Neighbors Complain. New York Times, August 5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAcademic Questions
AbbreviationAcad. Quest.
ISSN (print)0895-4852
ISSN (online)1936-4709

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