How to format your references using the Academic Questions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Academic Questions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wadman, Meredith. 2005. Race is on for flu vaccine. Nature 438: 23.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sarewitz, Daniel, and Richard Nelson. 2008. Three rules for technological fixes. Nature 456: 871–872.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gilman, R. Tucker, Scott L. Nuismer, and Dwueng-Chwuan Jhwueng. 2012. Coevolution in multidimensional trait space favours escape from parasites and pathogens. Nature 483: 328–330.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Wang, Ronghua, Chaohe Xu, Jing Sun, and Lian Gao. 2014. Three-dimensional Fe2O3 nanocubes/nitrogen-doped graphene aerogels: nucleation mechanism and lithium storage properties. Scientific reports 4: 7171.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paschedag, Anja R. 2004. CFD in der Verfahrenstechnik. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Claes, Laurence, and Jennifer J. Muehlenkamp, ed. 2014. Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Eating Disorders: Advancements in Etiology and Treatment. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Valle, Maura, and Maria Pia Zamorani. 2007. Nerve and Blood Vessels. In Ultrasound of the Musculoskeletal System, ed. Carlo Martinoli, 97–136. Medical Radiology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Academic Questions.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. 2016. X-Ray Echo Gives Us Clues About Dormant Black Holes. IFLScience. IFLScience. June 24.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2012. Highway Safety: Selected Cases of Commercial Drivers with Potentially Disqualifying Impairments. GAO-13-13. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hinckley, Michael. 2014. Socioecological factors that affect adolescent nervousness and depression. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, Linda. 2006. A Quiet Place To Start a Revolution. New York Times, August 18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAcademic Questions
AbbreviationAcad. Quest.
ISSN (print)0895-4852
ISSN (online)1936-4709

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