How to format your references using the Academic Questions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Academic Questions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Flasar, F. M. 2006. Planetary science. Titan’s polar weather. Science (New York, N.Y.) 313: 1582–1583.
A journal article with 2 authors
Turelli, Priscilla, and Didier Trono. 2005. Editing at the crossroad of innate and adaptive immunity. Science (New York, N.Y.) 307: 1061–1065.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rawson, Frankie J., Alison J. Downard, and Keith H. Baronian. 2014. Electrochemical detection of intracellular and cell membrane redox systems in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Scientific reports 4: 5216.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Gallavotti, Andrea, Qiong Zhao, Junko Kyozuka, Robert B. Meeley, Matthew K. Ritter, John F. Doebley, M. Enrico Pè, and Robert J. Schmidt. 2004. The role of barren stalk1 in the architecture of maize. Nature 432: 630–635.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Weiss, Joachim. 2016. Handbook of Ion Chromatography. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Calude, Cristian S., and Michael J. Dinneen, ed. 2015. Unconventional Computation and Natural Computation: 14th International Conference, UCNC 2015, Auckland, New Zealand, August 30 -- September 3, 2015, Proceedings. 1st ed. 2015. Vol. 9252. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Lefèvre, Julien, and Sylvain Baillet. 2009. Estimation of Velocity Fields and Propagation on Non-Euclidian Domains: Application to the Exploration of Cortical Spatiotemporal Dynamics. In Mathematical Modeling in Biomedical Imaging I: Electrical and Ultrasound Tomographies, Anomaly Detection, and Brain Imaging, ed. Habib Ammari, 203–226. Lecture Notes in Mathematics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Academic Questions.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2016. We Need To Know The Algorithms The Government Uses To Make Important Decisions About Us. IFLScience. IFLScience. May 28.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1989. Automated Information Systems: Schedule Delays and Cost Overruns Plague DOD Systems. IMTEC-89-36. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hayes, Monica G. 2010. A qualitative case study of cultural competency among Advanced Placement teachers in Florida. Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, George. 2011. Pond or Rink, Rangers Create Their Own Winter Classic. New York Times, January 7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAcademic Questions
AbbreviationAcad. Quest.
ISSN (print)0895-4852
ISSN (online)1936-4709

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