How to format your references using the Academic Questions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Academic Questions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Onozuka, Daisuke. 2014. Effect of non-stationary climate on infectious gastroenteritis transmission in Japan. Scientific reports 4: 5157.
A journal article with 2 authors
de Visser, J. Arjan G. M., and Daniel E. Rozen. 2004. Comment on “High deleterious genomic mutation rate in stationary phase of Escherichia coli.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 304: 518; author reply 518.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kitching, Richard P., Nicholas M. Taylor, and Michael V. Thrusfield. 2007. Veterinary epidemiology: vaccination strategies for foot-and-mouth disease. Nature 445: E12; discussion E12-3.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Guido, Nicholas J., Xiao Wang, David Adalsteinsson, David McMillen, Jeff Hasty, Charles R. Cantor, Timothy C. Elston, and J. J. Collins. 2006. A bottom-up approach to gene regulation. Nature 439: 856–860.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Krabbes, Gernot, Günter Fuchs, Wolf-Rüdiger Canders, Hardo May, and Ryszard Palka. 2006. High Temperature Superconductor Bulk Materials. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Turksen, Kursad, ed. 2013. Stem Cells: Current Challenges and New Directions. Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Fang, Alex Chengyu, and Jing Cao. 2015. Etymological Features Across Genres and Registers. In Text Genres and Registers: The Computation of Linguistic Features, ed. Jing Cao, 55–70. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Academic Questions.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2016. Testing Drugs On Animals Could Soon Be A Thing Of The Past. IFLScience. IFLScience. May 5.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1986. Missile Development: Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM) Certification Issues. NSIAD-86-124BR. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Slade, Shiree Wharton. 2010. The complexity of leading in the 21st century: A case study of a successful charter school in an urban school district. Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, George Gene. 2010. Look! Up in the Sky! Hoping for Broadway! New York Times, July 4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAcademic Questions
AbbreviationAcad. Quest.
ISSN (print)0895-4852
ISSN (online)1936-4709

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