How to format your references using the Psychiatric Annals citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychiatric Annals. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Oppenheim J. Physics. For quantum information, two wrongs can make a right. Science. 2008;321(5897):1783-1784.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sachs JD, Reid WV. Environment. Investments toward sustainable development. Science. 2006;312(5776):1002.
A journal article with 3 authors
Barwick B, Flannigan DJ, Zewail AH. Photon-induced near-field electron microscopy. Nature. 2009;462(7275):902-906.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Freyd JJ, Putnam FW, Lyon TD, et al. Psychology. The science of child sexual abuse. Science. 2005;308(5721):501.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Datta TK. Seismic Analysis of Structures. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010.
An edited book
Ahmad SI, ed. Neurodegenerative Diseases. Vol 724. Springer US; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Desrochers A, van Duinen G-J. Peatland Fauna. In: Wieder RK, Vitt DH, eds. Boreal Peatland Ecosystems. Ecological Studies. Springer; 2006:67-100.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychiatric Annals.

Blog post
Luntz S. Seriously Creepy Parasite Escapes from Praying Mantis. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. University Funding: Patterns of Distribution of Federal Research Funds to Universities. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Travis MJ. The relationship between a connections math class and math Criterion Referenced Competency Test scores. Published online 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gordon MR. How the President Wrongly Blamed The Times for a Terrorist’s Survival. New York Times. July 23, 2017:A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychiatric Annals
AbbreviationPsychiatr. Ann.
ISSN (print)0048-5713
ISSN (online)1938-2456
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

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