How to format your references using the Psychiatric Annals citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychiatric Annals. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Booth BB. Climate change. Why the Pacific is cool. Science. 2015;347(6225):952.
A journal article with 2 authors
Liu Z, Herbert TD. High-latitude influence on the eastern equatorial Pacific climate in the early Pleistocene epoch. Nature. 2004;427(6976):720-723.
A journal article with 3 authors
Willner AE, Wang J, Huang H. Applied physics. A different angle on light communications. Science. 2012;337(6095):655-656.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Weber T, Giessen H, Weckenbrock M, et al. Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization. Nature. 2000;405(6787):658-661.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lachin JM. Biostatistical Methods: The Assessment of Relative Risks. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Drexl J, Grosse Ruse-Khan H, Nadde-Phlix S, eds. EU Bilateral Trade Agreements and Intellectual Property: For Better or Worse? Vol 20. Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Malone T, Jackman C. Spectatorship as Embodied Practice. In: Jackman C, ed. Adapting War Horse: Cognition, the Spectator, and a Sense of Play. Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016:39-49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychiatric Annals.

Blog post
Fang J. Why European Fruit Flies Hold Their Liquor Better Than Tropical Ones. IFLScience. Published November 13, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Alternatives for Funding a GI Bill. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1981.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
DeLutis-Eichenberger AN. El Proceso Semiótico de Un Héroe Decimonónico: Un Estudio En Torno a Los “Textos-Tumbas” de Andrés Bello. Doctoral dissertation. University of Maryland, College Park; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J. For HBO, Storm Clouds Gather Over What Should Be a Smashing Summer. New York Times. August 14, 2017:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychiatric Annals
AbbreviationPsychiatr. Ann.
ISSN (print)0048-5713
ISSN (online)1938-2456
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

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