How to format your references using the Psychiatric Annals citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychiatric Annals. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rabitz H. Chemistry. Strong-arming molecular dynamics. Science. 2006;314(5797):264-265.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tzeng S-R, Kalodimos CG. Protein activity regulation by conformational entropy. Nature. 2012;488(7410):236-240.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dahl JE, Liu SG, Carlson RMK. Isolation and structure of higher diamondoids, nanometer-sized diamond molecules. Science. 2003;299(5603):96-99.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Liu X, Jung H-G, Kim S-O, et al. Silicon/copper dome-patterned electrodes for high-performance hybrid supercapacitors. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3183.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kissell J. Mac® Security Bible. Wiley Publishing, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
Cock A. Treasure Your Exceptions: The Science and Life of William Bateson. (Forsdyke DR, ed.). Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Auger P, de la Parra RB, Poggiale J-C, Sánchez E, Nguyen-Huu T. Aggregation of Variables and Applications to Population Dynamics. In: Magal P, Ruan S, eds. Structured Population Models in Biology and Epidemiology. Lecture Notes in Mathematics. Springer; 2008:209-263.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychiatric Annals.

Blog post
Andrew D. No Giant Leap For Mankind: Why We’ve Been Looking At Human Evolution In The Wrong Way. IFLScience. Published June 15, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: Many Broadcasters Will Not Meet May 2002 Digital Television Deadline. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Horta G. The potential of the Eurozone crisis to mobilize extreme right support in Spain, Portugal, and Italy. Published online 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M. In Suit, Ex-Employee Says Drug-Test Firm Mishandled Result. New York Times. April 26, 2014:D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychiatric Annals
AbbreviationPsychiatr. Ann.
ISSN (print)0048-5713
ISSN (online)1938-2456
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

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