How to format your references using the Psychiatric Annals citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Psychiatric Annals. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Davidson LA. Developmental biology. Apoptosis turbocharges epithelial morphogenesis. Science. 2008;321(5896):1641-1642.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ratajczak Z, Nippert JB. Comment on “Global resilience of tropical forest and savanna to critical transitions.” Science. 2012;336(6081):541; author reply 541.
A journal article with 3 authors
Spiegelhalter D, Pearson M, Short I. Visualizing uncertainty about the future. Science. 2011;333(6048):1393-1400.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ma X, Dai Y, Yu L, Huang B. Noble-metal-free plasmonic photocatalyst: hydrogen doped semiconductors. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3986.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mohan N. Advanced Electric Drives. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Cao L, Bazzan ALC, Gorodetsky V, Mitkas PA, Weiss G, Yu PS, eds. Agents and Data Mining Interaction: 6th International Workshop on Agents and Data Mining Interaction, ADMI 2010, Toronto, ON, Canada, May 11, 2010, Revised Selected Papers. Vol 5980. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Li J, Huang W. Extension and Generalization of the EMMS Principle. In: Huang W, ed. Towards Mesoscience: The Principle of Compromise in Competition. SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014:33-44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Psychiatric Annals.

Blog post
Andrew E. How Wolves Can Save an Ecosystem. IFLScience. Published April 16, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Misuse of Federal Funds Provided for the Midwest Regional Conference on Science, Technology, and State Government. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1971.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Francis TM. The Lived Experience of Caribbean Women and Their Experiences as Senior-Level Leaders: A Phenomenological Study. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cohen P. Storms Lead Jobs to Fall; First Decline In 7 Years. New York Times. October 6, 2017:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePsychiatric Annals
AbbreviationPsychiatr. Ann.
ISSN (print)0048-5713
ISSN (online)1938-2456
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

Other styles