How to format your references using the Journal of Physical Therapy Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Physical Therapy Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eichenbaum H: Neuroscience. Dedicated to memory? Science, 2010, 330: 1331–1332.
A journal article with 2 authors
Levitan DR, Ferrell DL: Selection on gamete recognition proteins depends on sex, density, and genotype frequency. Science, 2006, 312: 267–269.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dickie IA, Hurst JM, Bellingham PJ: Comment on “Conspecific negative density dependence and forest diversity.” Science, 2012, 338: 469; author reply 469.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chen H-T, Padilla WJ, Zide JMO, et al.: Active terahertz metamaterial devices. Nature, 2006, 444: 597–600.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kill R: The BRC Global Standard for Food Safety, Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012.
An edited book
Autophagy in Infection and Immunity, Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2009, p XIV, 339 p. 50 illus., 35 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Loeb S, Carter HB: PSA Dynamics. In: Jones JS (ed.)In: Prostate Cancer Diagnosis: PSA, Biopsy and Beyond. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 2013, p 41–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Physical Therapy Science.

Blog post
The Return Of Big Cats Could Help Save Lives On The Road. (Accessed Oct. 30, 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Chief Information Officers: Ensuring Strong Leadership and an Effective Council, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vianna MH: An exploration of the factors that influence Brazilian students’ fluency of English: A case study (Doctoral dissertation), Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED MJ, Steel E: As Content Makers Rise, Malone Eyes Consolidation. New York Times, 2017, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1).
This sentence cites two references 1, 2).
This sentence cites four references 1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Physical Therapy Science
AbbreviationJ. Phys. Ther. Sci.
ISSN (print)0915-5287
ISSN (online)2187-5626
ScopePhysical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles