How to format your references using the Journal of Physical Therapy Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Physical Therapy Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Langenberg H: Climate of care for a changing world. Nature, 2002, 417: 4–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Souza AMC, Andrade RFS: Coin state properties in quantum walks. Sci Rep, 2013, 3: 1976.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sambur JB, Novet T, Parkinson BA: Multiple exciton collection in a sensitized photovoltaic system. Science, 2010, 330: 63–66.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mahara Y, Ohta T, Ogawa H, et al.: Atmospheric direct uptake and long-term fate of radiocesium in trees after the Fukushima nuclear accident. Sci Rep, 2014, 4: 7121.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pétrowski A, Ben-Hamida S: Evolutionary Algorithms, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2017.
An edited book
Earthquakes, Tsunamis and Nuclear Risks: Prediction and Assessment Beyond the Fukushima Accident, 1st ed. 2016. Tokyo: Springer Japan, 2016, p XII, 177 p. 74 illus., 36 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Taiana R-D: Systematics and Ecology of Tropical Ectomycorrhizal Fungi Using Molecular Approaches, Soil Biology. In: Rai M, Varma A (eds.)In: Diversity and Biotechnology of Ectomycorrhizae. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2011, p 67–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Physical Therapy Science.

Blog post
Mixing These Two Common Medications Could Be Life-Threatening. (Accessed Oct. 30, 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Potential Problems That Should Be Considered in Evaluating the Experimental Technology Incentives Program, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Valley MT: Deciphering the function of granule cell interneurons in the mouse main olfactory bulb: Insights from adult neurogenesis and local-field potentials (Doctoral dissertation), New York, NY: Columbia University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED MJ: Unity Technologies Agrees to Funding. New York Times, 2017, B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1).
This sentence cites two references 1, 2).
This sentence cites four references 1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Physical Therapy Science
AbbreviationJ. Phys. Ther. Sci.
ISSN (print)0915-5287
ISSN (online)2187-5626
ScopePhysical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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