How to format your references using the Journal of Physical Therapy Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Physical Therapy Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Buckingham S: Bioinformatics: data’s future shock. Nature, 2004, 428: 774–777.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jenet FA, Ransom SM: The geometry of the double-pulsar system J0737-3039 from systematic intensity variations. Nature, 2004, 428: 919–921.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang X, Rickert M, Garcia KC: Structure of the quaternary complex of interleukin-2 with its alpha, beta, and gammac receptors. Science, 2005, 310: 1159–1163.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Limpens E, Franken C, Smit P, et al.: LysM domain receptor kinases regulating rhizobial Nod factor-induced infection. Science, 2003, 302: 630–633.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Benatar D: The Second Sexism, Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012.
An edited book
Chriss N: Representation Theory and Complex Geometry, Modern Birkhäuser Classics, 1st edition. Boston, MA: Birkhäuser, 2010, p X, 495 p. 5 illus.
A chapter in an edited book
Sun Y, Lu Y: A Grid-Based Subspace Clustering Algorithm for High-Dimensional Data Streams, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. In: Feng L, Wang G, Zeng C et al. (eds.)In: Web Information Systems – WISE 2006 Workshops: WISE 2006 International Workshops, Wuhan, China, October 23-26, 2006. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2006, p 37–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Physical Therapy Science.

Blog post
World’s Largest Solar Farm Goes Online In California. (Accessed Oct. 30, 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Distance Education: Improved Data on Program Costs and Guidelines on Quality Assessments Needed to Inform Federal Policy, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Emale JM: An examination of how conglomerates impact small-medium enterprises in their relationship (Doctoral dissertation), Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J: Bruce Arrived in Camp Expecting to Stay With Team. New York Times, 2017, B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1).
This sentence cites two references 1, 2).
This sentence cites four references 1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Physical Therapy Science
AbbreviationJ. Phys. Ther. Sci.
ISSN (print)0915-5287
ISSN (online)2187-5626
ScopePhysical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles