How to format your references using the Journal of Physical Therapy Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Physical Therapy Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crow JM: Microbiome: That healthy gut feeling. Nature, 2011, 480: S88-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Khajetoorians AA, Wiebe J: Physics. Hitting the limit of magnetic anisotropy. Science, 2014, 344: 976–977.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kerr JT, Kharouba HM, Currie DJ: The macroecological contribution to global change solutions. Science, 2007, 316: 1581–1584.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Field J, Shreeves G, Sumner S, et al.: Insurance-based advantage to helpers in a tropical hover wasp. Nature, 2000, 404: 869–871.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Buchenau J: The Last Caudillo, Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011.
An edited book
Double-Balloon Endoscopy: Theory and Practice, Tokyo: Springer Japan, 2006, p XII, 117 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Rasmussen KJR: Stainless Steel Structures, CISM International Centre for Mechanical Sciences. In: Rondal J, Dubina D (eds.)In: Light Gauge Metal Structures Recent Advances. Vienna: Springer, 2005, p 67–119.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Physical Therapy Science.

Blog post
This Is What Anti-Vaxxers Sound Like To Normal People. (Accessed Oct. 30, 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Federal Research: Policies Guiding the Dissemination of Scientific Research from Selected Agencies Should Be Clarified and Better Communicated, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Green JL: The leadership practices of executive women of local government (Doctoral dissertation), Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Seligman MEP, Tierney J: We Aren’t Built to Live in the Moment. New York Times, 2017, SR1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1).
This sentence cites two references 1, 2).
This sentence cites four references 1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Physical Therapy Science
AbbreviationJ. Phys. Ther. Sci.
ISSN (print)0915-5287
ISSN (online)2187-5626
ScopePhysical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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