How to format your references using the Journal of Physical Therapy Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Physical Therapy Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goodwin I: Bush appoints venture capitalist as technology adviser. Nature, 2001, 410: 617.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gao X, Wang K: Strength of stick-slip and creeping subduction megathrusts from heat flow observations. Science, 2014, 345: 1038–1041.
A journal article with 3 authors
Veizer J, Godderis Y, François LM: Evidence for decoupling of atmospheric CO2 and global climate during the Phanerozoic eon. Nature, 2000, 408: 698–701.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fairman ME, Maroney PA, Wang W, et al.: Protein displacement by DExH/D “RNA helicases” without duplex unwinding. Science, 2004, 304: 730–734.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ciobanu CV, Wang C-Z, Ho K-M: Atomic Structure Prediction of Nanostructures, Clusters and Surfaces, Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2013.
An edited book
Collective Bargaining and Wage Formation: Performance and Challenges, Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag HD, 2005, p X, 186 p. 48 illus.
A chapter in an edited book
Agterberg DF: Magnetoelectric Effects, Helical Phases, and FFLO Phases, Lecture Notes in Physics. In: Bauer E, Sigrist M (eds.)In: Non-Centrosymmetric Superconductors: Introduction and Overview. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2012, p 155–170.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Physical Therapy Science.

Blog post
Antidepressants Don’t Work for Children And Adolescents. (Accessed Oct. 30, 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Airline Competition: Barriers to Entry Continue in Some Domestic Markets, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ramey JD: A Case Study: Achievement Studies of Persistent, Transitional, and Transient Populations within the Blitz Program Model at a Large Midwestern Elementary School (Doctoral dissertation), St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L: Case of the Dwindling Docket Mystifies the Supreme Court. New York Times, 2006, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1).
This sentence cites two references 1, 2).
This sentence cites four references 1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Physical Therapy Science
AbbreviationJ. Phys. Ther. Sci.
ISSN (print)0915-5287
ISSN (online)2187-5626
ScopePhysical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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