How to format your references using the Journal of Physical Therapy Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Physical Therapy Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gifford DK: Blazing pathways through genetic mountains. Science, 2001, 293: 2049–2051.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schreiber H, Rowley DA: Cancer. Quo vadis, specificity? Science, 2008, 319: 164–165.
A journal article with 3 authors
Day JMD, Pearson DG, Taylor LA: Highly siderophile element constraints on accretion and differentiation of the Earth-Moon system. Science, 2007, 315: 217–219.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Striepens N, Kendrick KM, Hanking V, et al.: Elevated cerebrospinal fluid and blood concentrations of oxytocin following its intranasal administration in humans. Sci Rep, 2013, 3: 3440.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Berto F: There’s Something about Gödel, Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009.
An edited book
TT Viruses: The Still Elusive Human Pathogens, Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2009, pp X, 233 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Bitner-Gregersen EM, Eide LI, Hørte T, et al.: Summary of Past and Future Climate Change, SpringerBriefs in Climate Studies. In: Eide LI, Hørte T, Skjong R (eds.)In: Ship and Offshore Structure Design in Climate Change Perspective. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2013, p 39–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Physical Therapy Science.

Blog post
What Does Chemotherapy Do To Your Brain? (Accessed Oct. 30, 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: NASA Procurement: Agencywide Action Needed to Improve Management of Contract Modifications, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Elder R: A Mixed-Method Investigation of the Missouri Pre-Service Teacher Assessment Pilot Program at a Private Midwestern University (Doctoral dissertation), St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G: Faces Change for Yanks, but Postseason Focus Doesn’t. New York Times, 2010, B17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1).
This sentence cites two references 1, 2).
This sentence cites four references 1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Physical Therapy Science
AbbreviationJ. Phys. Ther. Sci.
ISSN (print)0915-5287
ISSN (online)2187-5626
ScopePhysical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles