How to format your references using the Protein Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Protein Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Robbins M (2011) Policy: Fuelling politics. Nature 474:S22-4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Jain RK, Padera TP (2003) Development. Lymphatics make the break. Science 299:209–210.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Yonezawa H, Aoki T, Furusawa A (2004) Demonstration of a quantum teleportation network for continuous variables. Nature 431:430–433.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
1. Colwell RK, Brehm G, Cardelús CL, Gilman AC, Longino JT (2008) Global warming, elevational range shifts, and lowland biotic attrition in the wet tropics. Science 322:258–261.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Murphy R Dynamic Assessment, Intelligence and Measurement. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010.
An edited book
1. Gschwind T, Pautasso C eds Emerging Web Services Technology, Volume II. Basel: Birkhäuser; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Guerrieri E Who’s Listening to Talking Plants? In: Blande JD, Glinwood R, editors. Deciphering Chemical Language of Plant Communication. Signaling and Communication in Plants. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. pp. 117–136.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Protein Science.

Blog post
1. Taub B (2015) Spanish Town Bathed In Mysterious “Blood Rain.” IFLScience [Internet]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office Issues Related to FAA’s Fiscal Year 1991 Budget Request. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Robinson AC (2017) A Geophysical and Geological Characterization of the Bonanza 3D Survey, Claiborne Group, Saint Landry and Evangeline Parishes, Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Vecsey G (2011) Welcoming Back N.B.A. With Open Yawns. New York Times:B16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleProtein Science
AbbreviationProtein Sci.
ISSN (print)0961-8368
ISSN (online)1469-896x
Molecular Biology

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