How to format your references using the Protein Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Protein Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Chiang Y-M (2010) Materials science. Building a better battery. Science 330:1485–1486.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Brivanlou AH, Darnell JE Jr (2002) Signal transduction and the control of gene expression. Science 295:813–818.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Paolo FS, Fricker HA, Padman L (2015) Ice sheets. Volume loss from Antarctic ice shelves is accelerating. Science 348:327–331.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
1. Tian F, Song B, Chen X, Ravichandran NK, Lv Y, Chen K, Sullivan S, Kim J, Zhou Y, Liu T-H, et al. (2018) Unusual high thermal conductivity in boron arsenide bulk crystals. Science 361:582–585.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Hornberger G, Wiberg P Numerical Methods in the Hydrological Sciences. Washington D. C.: American Geophysical Union; 2005.
An edited book
1. Doleželová-Velingerová M, Wagner RG eds Chinese Encyclopaedias of New Global Knowledge (1870-1930): Changing Ways of Thought. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Gonçalves R, Knorr M, Leite J Evolving Bridge Rules in Evolving Multi-Context Systems. In: Bulling N, Torre L van der, Villata S, Jamroga W, Vasconcelos W, editors. Computational Logic in Multi-Agent Systems: 15th International Workshop, CLIMA XV, Prague, Czech Republic, August 18-19, 2014. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. pp. 52–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Protein Science.

Blog post
1. Andrew D (2016) Rip Currents Are A Natural Hazard Along Our Coasts – Here’s How To Spot Them. IFLScience [Internet]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office Highway Projects: Some Federal and State Practices to Expedite Completion Show Promise. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Davidson JM (2010) Transitional age youth—a program expansion to enhance existing services in Sonoma County: A grant-writing project.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Rosenberg E (2016) Misconduct Complaint Against Christie Has Merit, Judge Says. New York Times:A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleProtein Science
AbbreviationProtein Sci.
ISSN (print)0961-8368
ISSN (online)1469-896x
Molecular Biology

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