How to format your references using the Protein Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Protein Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Perros M (2015) Infectious disease. A sustainable model for antibiotics. Science 347:1062–1064.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Zachariah MA, Cyster JG (2010) Neural crest-derived pericytes promote egress of mature thymocytes at the corticomedullary junction. Science 328:1129–1135.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Zachos JC, Dickens GR, Zeebe RE (2008) An early Cenozoic perspective on greenhouse warming and carbon-cycle dynamics. Nature 451:279–283.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
1. Deutsch C, Sarmiento JL, Sigman DM, Gruber N, Dunne JP (2007) Spatial coupling of nitrogen inputs and losses in the ocean. Nature 445:163–167.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Simon MK, Lee D, Martin WL, Tsou H, Yan T-Y Bandwidth-Efficient Digital Modulation with Application to Deep Space Communications. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
1. Sugiyama Y, Steffansen B eds Transporters in Drug Development: Discovery, Optimization, Clinical Study and Regulation. New York, NY: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Sung K, Pavleas J, Arnez F, Pace J Implementing Common Components of Video Games. In: Pavleas J, Arnez F, Pace J, editors. Build Your Own 2D Game Engine and Create Great Web Games: Using HTML5, JavaScript, and WebGL. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2015. pp. 77–126.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Protein Science.

Blog post
1. Andrew E (2014) Penn & Teller Call Bullshit on Anti-Vaccination. IFLScience [Internet]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office Transportation Security: DHS Efforts to Eliminate Redundant Background Check Investigations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Copeland AD (2013) A qualitative study of clinical oncology nurses’ perceptions of work-life balance.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Dominus S (2016) Parent Companies. New York Times:MM46.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleProtein Science
AbbreviationProtein Sci.
ISSN (print)0961-8368
ISSN (online)1469-896x
Molecular Biology

Other styles