How to format your references using the Protein Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Protein Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Watanabe M (2003) Small world, big hopes. Nature 426:478–479.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Mojzsis SJ, Harrison TM (2002) Origin and significance of Archean quartzose rocks at Akilia, Greenland. Science 298:917; discussion 917.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Nandal P, Ravella SR, Kuhad RC (2013) Laccase production by Coriolopsis caperata RCK2011: optimization under solid state fermentation by Taguchi DOE methodology. Sci. Rep. 3:1386.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
1. Hutchins JRA, Toyoda Y, Hegemann B, Poser I, Hériché J-K, Sykora MM, Augsburg M, Hudecz O, Buschhorn BA, Bulkescher J, et al. (2010) Systematic analysis of human protein complexes identifies chromosome segregation proteins. Science 328:593–599.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Stevens BA, Roediger E Breaking Negative Relationship Patterns. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
1. Tonchia S Performance Measurement: Linking Balanced Scorecard to Business Intelligence. (Quagini L, editor.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Gonzaga de Oliveira SL, de Abreu AAAM, Robaina D, Kischinhevsky M A New Heuristic for Bandwidth and Profile Reductions of Matrices Using a Self-organizing Map. In: Gervasi O, Murgante B, Misra S, Rocha AMAC, Torre CM, Taniar D, Apduhan BO, Stankova E, Wang S, editors. Computational Science and Its Applications – ICCSA 2016: 16th International Conference, Beijing, China, July 4-7, 2016, Proceedings, Part I. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. pp. 54–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Protein Science.

Blog post
1. Andrew E (2014) New Stem Cell Line Developed With Big Potential. IFLScience [Internet]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office Computer-Based Patient Records: Improved Planning and Project Management Are Critical to Achieving Two-Way VA-DOD Health Data Exchange. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Baker TN (2017) The Impact of Undergraduate Research Participation on Research Self-Efficacy.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Meyer JA, Meyer LR (2007) Abolish Parole. New York Times:14CT15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleProtein Science
AbbreviationProtein Sci.
ISSN (print)0961-8368
ISSN (online)1469-896x
Molecular Biology

Other styles