How to format your references using the Protein Expression and Purification citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Protein Expression and Purification. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
N. Prantzos, Cosmology: Rare isotopic insight into the Universe, Nature. 529 (2016) 33–34.
A journal article with 2 authors
V. Smetacek, J.E. Cloern, Oceans. On phytoplankton trends, Science. 319 (2008) 1346–1348.
A journal article with 3 authors
M.E.M. Noble, J.A. Endicott, L.N. Johnson, Protein kinase inhibitors: insights into drug design from structure, Science. 303 (2004) 1800–1805.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
H. Niikura, F. Légaré, R. Hasbani, M.Y. Ivanov, D.M. Villeneuve, P.B. Corkum, Probing molecular dynamics with attosecond resolution using correlated wave packet pairs, Nature. 421 (2003) 826–829.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R.K. Jain, H.C. Triandis, C.W. Weick, Managing Research, Development, and Innovation, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2010.
An edited book
E. Grossi, A. Ravagnan, eds., Cultura e salute: La partecipazione culturale come strumento per un nuovo welfare, Springer, Milano, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
S.T. Seroyer, C.D. Harner, Avoiding and Managing Complications in PCL Reconstruction, in: R.J. Meislin, J. Halbrecht (Eds.), Complications in Knee and Shoulder Surgery: Management and Treatment Options for the Sports Medicine Orthopedist, Springer, London, 2009: pp. 75–90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Protein Expression and Purification.

Blog post
K. Hamilton, What Happens When You Mix Coca-Cola With Liquid Nitrogen?, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Telecommunications: Challenges to Assessing and Improving Telecommunications for Native Americans on Tribal Lands, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M.A. Jackson, An action research study of collaborative relationhips between psychotherapists and medical doctors, Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, Ryan’s Gospel of Green Softens Sting of Defeat, New York Times. (2010) B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProtein Expression and Purification
AbbreviationProtein Expr. Purif.
ISSN (print)1046-5928

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