How to format your references using the Protein Expression and Purification citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Protein Expression and Purification. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C. Dulac, Neuroscience. Charting olfactory maps, Science. 314 (2006) 606–607.
A journal article with 2 authors
H. Kawasaki, K. Taira, Induction of DNA methylation and gene silencing by short interfering RNAs in human cells, Nature. 431 (2004) 211–217.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.S. DeLoache, D.H. Uttal, K.S. Rosengren, Scale errors offer evidence for a perception-action dissociation early in life, Science. 304 (2004) 1027–1029.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C. Wozny, A. Kivi, T.-N. Lehmann, C. Dehnicke, U. Heinemann, J. Behr, Comment on “On the origin of interictal activity in human temporal lobe epilepsy in vitro,” Science. 301 (2003) 463; author reply 463.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. Mazer, Shifting the Earth, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
Q. Zhu, J. Gould, Y. Li, C. Ma, eds., Rainwater Harvesting for Agriculture and Water Supply, Springer, Singapore, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
T. Knopp, T.M. Buzug, From Data to Images: Reconstruction, in: T.M. Buzug (Ed.), Magnetic Particle Imaging: An Introduction to Imaging Principles and Scanner Instrumentation, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012: pp. 127–148.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Protein Expression and Purification.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Why we need volunteers for the first human Ebola trials, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Pipeline Safety: Progress Made, but Significant Requirements and Recommendations Not Yet Complete, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K.D. Prejean, An Analysis of Corporal Punishment Practices in Texas Public Schools: Race, School District Size, Academic Performance, and Policy Influences, Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Eligon, S. Cacciola, Player’s Protest Revives a Spirit of Activism From the Days of Ali, New York Times. (2016) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProtein Expression and Purification
AbbreviationProtein Expr. Purif.
ISSN (print)1046-5928

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