How to format your references using the General and Comparative Endocrinology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for General and Comparative Endocrinology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eisenstein, M., 2006. Microarrays: quality control. Nature 442, 1067–1070.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kaspari, M., Weiser, M.D., 2014. Ecology. Meet the new boss, same as the old boss. Science 343, 974–975.
A journal article with 3 authors
Logvenov, G., Gozar, A., Bozovic, I., 2009. High-temperature superconductivity in a single copper-oxygen plane. Science 326, 699–702.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Liu, R., Ji, C., Mock, J.J., Chin, J.Y., Cui, T.J., Smith, D.R., 2009. Broadband ground-plane cloak. Science 323, 366–369.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Overhauser, A., 2010. Anomalous Effects in Simple Metals. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Grizzard, J.D., 2008. Cardiovascular MRI in Practice: A Teaching File Approach. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Schellekens, D., Tuyls, P., Preneel, B., 2008. Embedded Trusted Computing with Authenticated Non-volatile Memory, in: Lipp, P., Sadeghi, A.-R., Koch, K.-M. (Eds.), Trusted Computing - Challenges and Applications: First International Conference on Trusted Computing and Trust in Information Technologies, Trust 2008 Villach, Austria, March 11-12, 2008 Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 60–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for General and Comparative Endocrinology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. North Korean Scientist Defects; Will Testify On Human Experimentation [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1996. Federal Research: Interim Assessment of the Small Business Innovation Research and Technology Transfer Programs (No. T-RCED-96-93). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ishutov, S., 2013. Tectonic characterization of the THUMS-Huntington Beach fault, offshore southern California (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W., 2017. At Food Co-op, a Rift Over Its Pension Fund. New York Times B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Eisenstein, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Eisenstein, 2006; Kaspari and Weiser, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kaspari and Weiser, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeneral and Comparative Endocrinology
AbbreviationGen. Comp. Endocrinol.
ISSN (print)0016-6480

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