How to format your references using the General and Comparative Endocrinology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for General and Comparative Endocrinology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Buratowski, S., 2008. Transcription. Gene expression--where to start? Science 322, 1804–1805.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mota, B., Herculano-Houzel, S., 2015. BRAIN STRUCTURE. Cortical folding scales universally with surface area and thickness, not number of neurons. Science 349, 74–77.
A journal article with 3 authors
Renata, H., Zhou, Q., Baran, P.S., 2013. Strategic redox relay enables a scalable synthesis of ouabagenin, a bioactive cardenolide. Science 339, 59–63.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Goodwin, A.L., Calleja, M., Conterio, M.J., Dove, M.T., Evans, J.S.O., Keen, D.A., Peters, L., Tucker, M.G., 2008. Colossal positive and negative thermal expansion in the framework material Ag3[Co(CN)6]. Science 319, 794–797.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barton, L.L., Northup, D.E., 2011. Microbial Ecology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Hill, R., 2013. Guide to Cloud Computing: Principles and Practice, Computer Communications and Networks. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Yuan, C., Duan, C., Wu, F., 2016. Robust $$\mathcal{H}_{\infty }$$ Switching Control of Polytopic Parameter-Varying Systems via Dynamic Output Feedback, in: Li, S.E., Deng, K. (Eds.), Automotive Air Conditioning: Optimization, Control and Diagnosis. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 53–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for General and Comparative Endocrinology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Researchers Find Fossil Fragments Of World’s Oldest Flowering Plant [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2013. Indian Affairs: Management Challenges Continue to Hinder Efforts to Improve Indian Education (No. GAO-13-342T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rutherford, J., 2010. What is old is new again: The role of discontinuity in nostalgia-related consumption (Doctoral dissertation). Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Whiteside, K., 2017. Rare Double for a Noted Owner. New York Times B7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Buratowski, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Buratowski, 2008; Mota and Herculano-Houzel, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mota and Herculano-Houzel, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Goodwin et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeneral and Comparative Endocrinology
AbbreviationGen. Comp. Endocrinol.
ISSN (print)0016-6480

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