How to format your references using the General and Comparative Endocrinology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for General and Comparative Endocrinology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mattick, J.S., 2011. Genome-sequencing anniversary. The genomic foundation is shifting. Science 331, 874.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wolff, S., Dillin, A., 2013. Ageing: beneficial miscommunication. Nature 497, 442–443.
A journal article with 3 authors
Thore, S., Leibundgut, M., Ban, N., 2006. Structure of the eukaryotic thiamine pyrophosphate riboswitch with its regulatory ligand. Science 312, 1208–1211.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lee, S., Vinegoni, C., Sebas, M., Weissleder, R., 2014. Automated motion artifact removal for intravital microscopy, without a priori information. Sci. Rep. 4, 4507.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pozzilli, P., Lenzi, A., Clarke, B.L., Young, W.F., Jr, 2013. Imaging in Endocrinology. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Hage, J.C., Pfordten, D. von der (Eds.), 2009. Concepts in Law, Law and Philosophy Library. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Savin-Baden, M., Wimpenny, K., 2014. What are Arts-Related Methods?, in: Wimpenny, K. (Ed.), A Practical Guide to Arts-Related Research. SensePublishers, Rotterdam, pp. 45–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for General and Comparative Endocrinology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. New Battery Biodegrades Inside The Human Body [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2008. Business Systems Modernization: Internal Revenue Service’s Fiscal Year 2008 Expenditure Plan (No. GAO-08-420). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nguyen, J., 2012. Adherence to medications among Vietnamese Americans 65 years of age and older (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Loewenstein, G., Ubel, P., 2010. Economics Behaving Badly. New York Times A31.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mattick, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Mattick, 2011; Wolff and Dillin, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wolff and Dillin, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Lee et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeneral and Comparative Endocrinology
AbbreviationGen. Comp. Endocrinol.
ISSN (print)0016-6480

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