How to format your references using the General and Comparative Endocrinology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for General and Comparative Endocrinology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Roebroeks, W., 2014. Archaeology: Art on the move. Nature 514, 170–171.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ding, H.-M., Ma, Y.-Q., 2013. Controlling cellular uptake of nanoparticles with pH-sensitive polymers. Sci. Rep. 3, 2804.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tahir, M., Sabeeh, K., Schwingenschlögl, U., 2013. Quantum capacitance of an ultrathin topological insulator film in a magnetic field. Sci. Rep. 3, 1261.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jetz, W., Carbone, C., Fulford, J., Brown, J.H., 2004. The scaling of animal space use. Science 306, 266–268.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dodson, B., Hammett, P.C., Klerx, R., 2014. Probabilistic Design for Optimization and Robustness for Engineers. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Esposito, A., Faundez-Zanuy, M., Esposito, A.M., Cordasco, G., Drugman, T., Solé-Casals, J., Morabito, F.C. (Eds.), 2016. Recent Advances in Nonlinear Speech Processing, 1st ed. 2016. ed, Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Fiedler, T., Öchsner, A., 2009. Elastic-Plastic Properties: Simulation and Experiment, in: Öechsner, A., Augustin, C. (Eds.), Multifunctional Metallic Hollow Sphere Structures: Manufacturing, Properties and Application, Engineering Materials. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 47–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for General and Comparative Endocrinology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Brain Training App Could Help Schizophrenia Patients [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2001. Troops to Teachers: Program Helped Address Teacher Shortages (No. GAO-01-567). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D’Ambrosio, J.L., 2013. Perspectives on the Geomorphic Evolution and Ecology of Modified Channels and Two-Stage Ditches in the Agriculturally-Dominated Midwestern United States (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Verkuil, P.R., 2016. The Case for Bureaucracy. New York Times A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Roebroeks, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Ding and Ma, 2013; Roebroeks, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ding and Ma, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Jetz et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeneral and Comparative Endocrinology
AbbreviationGen. Comp. Endocrinol.
ISSN (print)0016-6480

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