How to format your references using the General and Comparative Endocrinology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for General and Comparative Endocrinology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marris, E., 2010. On high alert. Nature 466, S2-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lim, C., Allada, R., 2013. ATAXIN-2 activates PERIOD translation to sustain circadian rhythms in Drosophila. Science 340, 875–879.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kim, S.-Y., Hakoshima, T., Kitano, K., 2013. Structure of the RecQ C-terminal domain of human Bloom syndrome protein. Sci. Rep. 3, 3294.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Myong, S., Cui, S., Cornish, P.V., Kirchhofer, A., Gack, M.U., Jung, J.U., Hopfner, K.-P., Ha, T., 2009. Cytosolic viral sensor RIG-I is a 5’-triphosphate-dependent translocase on double-stranded RNA. Science 323, 1070–1074.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sanchez, A., Carro, B., 2017. Digital Services in the 21st Century. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Andresen, M., Nowak, C. (Eds.), 2015. Human Resource Management Practices: Assessing Added Value, Management for Professionals. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Raut, J.S., Karuppayil, S.M., 2014. Bioprospecting of Plant Essential Oils for Medicinal Uses, in: Fulekar, M.H., Pathak, B., Kale, R.K. (Eds.), Environment and Sustainable Development. Springer India, New Delhi, pp. 59–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for General and Comparative Endocrinology.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2014. Mysterious Object Spotted On Saturn’s Moon [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2016. Indian Affairs: Key Actions Needed to Ensure Safety and Health at Indian School Facilities (No. GAO-16-313). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Koblick, D.C., 2012. Parallel high-precision orbit propagation using the modified Picard-Chebyshev method (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, B., 2016. Saudi Prince Is Executed for Murder. New York Times A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Marris, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Lim and Allada, 2013; Marris, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lim and Allada, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Myong et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeneral and Comparative Endocrinology
AbbreviationGen. Comp. Endocrinol.
ISSN (print)0016-6480

Other styles