How to format your references using the General and Comparative Endocrinology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for General and Comparative Endocrinology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pasachoff, J.M., 2009. Solar eclipses as an astrophysical laboratory. Nature 459, 789–795.
A journal article with 2 authors
Saviane, C., Silver, R.A., 2006. Fast vesicle reloading and a large pool sustain high bandwidth transmission at a central synapse. Nature 439, 983–987.
A journal article with 3 authors
Flower, T.P., Gribble, M., Ridley, A.R., 2014. Deception by flexible alarm mimicry in an African bird. Science 344, 513–516.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sokol, A.M., Cruet-Hennequart, S., Pasero, P., Carty, M.P., 2013. DNA polymerase η modulates replication fork progression and DNA damage responses in platinum-treated human cells. Sci. Rep. 3, 3277.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Luo, A.C.J., Guo, Y., 2013. Vibro-Impact Dynamics. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Chaki, N., Meghanathan, N., Nagamalai, D. (Eds.), 2013. Computer Networks & Communications (NetCom): Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Networks & Communications, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Mukati, M.A., 2012. A Heuristic Approach of Code Assignment to Obtain an Optimal FSM Design, in: Thaung, K.S. (Ed.), Advanced Information Technology in Education, Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 23–31.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for General and Comparative Endocrinology.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2016. Figures Show No Mass Shootings In Australia Since Gun Control Laws Were Introduced 20 Years Ago [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2009. Technology Transfer: Clearer Priorities and Greater Use of Innovative Approaches Could Increase the Effectiveness of Technology Transfer at Department of Energy Laboratories (No. GAO-09-548). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Harvey, T.N., 2016. Effects of low pass filtered input on adult non-lexical intonation in second language acquisition (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M., 2012. Behind a Gifted Horse, A Powerful Part-Owner. New York Times B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pasachoff, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Pasachoff, 2009; Saviane and Silver, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Saviane and Silver, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Sokol et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeneral and Comparative Endocrinology
AbbreviationGen. Comp. Endocrinol.
ISSN (print)0016-6480

Other styles