How to format your references using the Propulsion and Power Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Propulsion and Power Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
W. Cash, Detection of Earth-like planets around nearby stars using a petal-shaped occulter, Nature. 442 (2006) 51–53.
A journal article with 2 authors
S. Iijima, L.-C. Qin, Electron microscopic characterization of silver nanowire arrays, Science. 296 (2002) 611.
A journal article with 3 authors
W.D.S. Killgore, E.A. Olson, M. Weber, Physical exercise habits correlate with gray matter volume of the hippocampus in healthy adult humans, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 3457.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R. Dixit, J.L. Ross, Y.E. Goldman, E.L.F. Holzbaur, Differential regulation of dynein and kinesin motor proteins by tau, Science. 319 (2008) 1086–1089.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
L.A. Belfiore, Transport Phenomena for Chemical Reactor Design, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2003.
An edited book
K.C. Hall, R.E. Kielb, J.P. Thomas, eds., UNSTEADY AERODYNAMICS, AEROACOUSTICS AND AEROELASTICITY OF TURBOMACHINES, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
E. Harmon-Jones, C.K. Peterson, C. Harmon-Jones, Anger, Motivation, and Asymmetrical Frontal Cortical Activations, in: M. Potegal, G. Stemmler, C. Spielberger (Eds.), International Handbook of Anger: Constituent and Concomitant Biological, Psychological, and Social Processes, Springer, New York, NY, 2010: pp. 61–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Propulsion and Power Research.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Sci-Fi Style Prosthetic Arm Wins FDA Approval, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Mass Transit: Review of the Bay Area Rapid Transit District’s Airport Extension Finance Plan, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D.M. Jones, Educational paradigm shift: Emergence of the virtual classroom, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Hodara, Using Their Artistic Vision to Pierce Iran’s Veil, New York Times. (2016) WE7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePropulsion and Power Research
AbbreviationPropuls. Power Res.
ISSN (print)2212-540X

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