How to format your references using the Propulsion and Power Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Propulsion and Power Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P.A. Cripton, Perspective: Protecting the neck, Nature. 503 (2013) S13.
A journal article with 2 authors
D.E.L. Promislow, M. Kaeberlein, Development. Chemical warfare in the battle of the sexes, Science. 343 (2014) 491–492.
A journal article with 3 authors
L.J. Wang, A. Kuzmich, A. Dogariu, Gain-assisted superluminal light propagation, Nature. 406 (2000) 277–279.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
W.E. Balch, R.I. Morimoto, A. Dillin, J.W. Kelly, Adapting proteostasis for disease intervention, Science. 319 (2008) 916–919.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
B. Zhang, D. Qiu, Sneak Circuits of Power Electronic Converters, John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd, Singapore, 2014.
An edited book
E. Hull, Requirements Engineering, Second Edition, Springer, London, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
D. Todić, Social and Environmental Issues Related to Security in SEE Countries, in: M. Montini, S. Bogdanovic (Eds.), Environmental Security in South-Eastern Europe: International Agreements and Their Implementation, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2011: pp. 43–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Propulsion and Power Research.

Blog post
K. Hamilton, Incredible Dolphin Birth at Dolphin Quest Hawaii, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Aviation Security: TSA Has Made Progress, but Additional Efforts Are Needed to Improve Security, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D. Charoenphol, Using robust statistical methodology to evaluate the performance of project delivery systems: A case study of horizontal construction, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Hodgman, Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman, New York Times. (2017) MM20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePropulsion and Power Research
AbbreviationPropuls. Power Res.
ISSN (print)2212-540X

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