How to format your references using the Propulsion and Power Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Propulsion and Power Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
N. Savage, Technology: the taste of things to come, Nature. 486 (2012) S18-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
N. Schmerr, E.J. Garnero, Upper mantle discontinuity topography from thermal and chemical heterogeneity, Science. 318 (2007) 623–626.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. Barna, P.P. Pandolfi, L. Niswander, Gli3 and Plzf cooperate in proximal limb patterning at early stages of limb development, Nature. 436 (2005) 277–281.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Fadil, D. Iida, Y. Chen, J. Ma, Y. Ou, P.M. Petersen, H. Ou, Surface plasmon coupling dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures and radiative efficiency improvement, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6392.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
K.I. Bagrintseva, Carbonate Reservoir Rocks, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2015.
An edited book
D. Pimentel, R. Peshin, eds., Integrated Pest Management: Pesticide Problems, Vol.3, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
T. Kardel, P. Maquet, 3 In Paris and France 1664-1665, in: T. Kardel, P. Maquet (Eds.), Nicolaus Steno: Biography and Original Papers of a 17th Century Scientist, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013: pp. 115–140.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Propulsion and Power Research.

Blog post
J. Davis, Scotland To Ban Growing Commercial GM Crops, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, SEC: EDGAR Dissemination Update, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K. Holmes, Ethical practice online: An exploration of provider liability risk among practitioners in the emerging field of online therapy, Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Saslow, 6 Proposed School Budgets Pass in Revote, New York Times. (2007) LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePropulsion and Power Research
AbbreviationPropuls. Power Res.
ISSN (print)2212-540X

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