How to format your references using the Propulsion and Power Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Propulsion and Power Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
E. Dolgin, Stem cells: Transplants on trial, Nature. 480 (2011) S46-7.
A journal article with 2 authors
T.R. Clandinin, L.M. Giocomo, Neuroscience: Internal compass puts flies in their place, Nature. 521 (2015) 165–166.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. O’Connor, X. Zheng, Z. Zhou, Zheng et al. reply, Nature. 499 (2013) E1-2.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
E.C. Stites, P.C. Trampont, Z. Ma, K.S. Ravichandran, Network analysis of oncogenic Ras activation in cancer, Science. 318 (2007) 463–467.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
G.R. Samuel, Formulas and Calculations for Drilling Operations, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2010.
An edited book
D.L. Shapiro, Risk Assessment: Origins, Evolution, and Implications for Practice, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
D.H. Jenkins, The Effects of Bullets, in: A.J. Brooks, J. Clasper, M. Midwinter, T.J. Hodgetts, P.F. Mahoney (Eds.), Ryan’s Ballistic Trauma: A Practical Guide, Springer, London, 2011: pp. 37–40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Propulsion and Power Research.

Blog post
E. Andrew, The Science Of ‘Hangry’, Or Why Some People Get Grumpy When They’re Hungry, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Globe Safety Product’s Inquiry Regarding Firefighters Breathing Apparatus Developed for NASA by Scott Aviation Company, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
G. Kim, Development of a nutrition-based curriculum for farm-to-school programs for the fourth and fifth grades, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Wagner, Mets Find Trip to Series Has Cost in Pitching Staff, New York Times. (2016) B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePropulsion and Power Research
AbbreviationPropuls. Power Res.
ISSN (print)2212-540X

Other styles