How to format your references using the Progress in Retinal and Eye Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Progress in Retinal and Eye Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hyun, I., 2014. Policy: Regulate embryos made for research. Nature 509, 27–28.
A journal article with 2 authors
Azzalin, C.M., Lingner, J., 2004. Cell biology. Telomere wedding ends in divorce. Science 304, 60–62.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chaudhari, N.K., Song, M.Y., Yu, J.-S., 2014. Heteroatom-doped highly porous carbon from human urine. Sci. Rep. 4, 5221.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bennett, M.R., Pang, W.L., Ostroff, N.A., Baumgartner, B.L., Nayak, S., Tsimring, L.S., Hasty, J., 2008. Metabolic gene regulation in a dynamically changing environment. Nature 454, 1119–1122.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brown, T., Andrews, G.J., Cummins, S., Greenhough, B., Lewis, D., Power, A., 2017. Health Geographies. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Nakamura, T., 2015. Urban Mining Systems, SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology. Springer Japan, Tokyo.
A chapter in an edited book
Garnier, E., Adams, N., Sagaut, P., 2009. Functional Modeling, in: Adams, N., Sagaut, P. (Eds.), Large Eddy Simulation for Compressible Flows, Scientific Computation. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 77–93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Progress in Retinal and Eye Research.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2016. Do Opioids Make Pain Worse? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2011. Next Generation Air Transportation: Collaborative Efforts with European Union Generally Mirror Effective Practices, but Near-Term Challenges Could Delay Implementation (No. GAO-12-48). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pasricha, L.A., 2010. North African women in Spain: Dreams and reality, identity and belonging (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dominus, I. by S., 2013. ‘I Really Put Myself Out There.’ New York Times MM14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hyun, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Azzalin and Lingner, 2004; Hyun, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Azzalin and Lingner, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Bennett et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleProgress in Retinal and Eye Research
AbbreviationProg. Retin. Eye Res.
ISSN (print)1350-9462
Sensory Systems

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