How to format your references using the Intellectual Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Intellectual Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jonas, D. M. (2003). Chemistry. Optical analogs of 2D NMR. Science (New York, N.Y.), 300(5625), 1515–1517.
A journal article with 2 authors
Arlot-Bonnemains, Y., & Prigent, C. (2002). Cell cycle. A trigger for centrosome duplication. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5554), 455–456.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pfingsten, J. S., Costantino, D. A., & Kieft, J. S. (2006). Structural basis for ribosome recruitment and manipulation by a viral IRES RNA. Science (New York, N.Y.), 314(5804), 1450–1454.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lee, A.-H., Scapa, E. F., Cohen, D. E., & Glimcher, L. H. (2008). Regulation of hepatic lipogenesis by the transcription factor XBP1. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5882), 1492–1496.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kiehl, A. R., & Mays, M. B. C. (2016). Atlas for the Diagnosis of Tumors in the Dog and Cat. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Nipkow, T. (2014). Concrete Semantics: With Isabelle/HOL (G. Klein, Ed.). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang, L., Wu, Q., Qin, B., & Domingo-Ferrer, J. (2012). Practical Privacy for Value-Added Applications in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks. In Y. Xiang, M. Pathan, X. Tao, & H. Wang (Eds.), Internet and Distributed Computing Systems: 5th International Conference, IDCS 2012, Wuyishan, Fujian, China, November 21-23, 2012. Proceedings (pp. 43–56). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Intellectual Economics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, July 1). Patent or No Patent, Silver Oxide Cannot Cure AIDS. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2016). Federal Research: Information on DOE’s Laboratory-Directed Research and Development Program (GAO-16-486R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Marjanovic, S. Y. (2016). The Role of the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein in Regulating T Cell Programmed Cell Death Mechanisms and Implications for Autoimmunity in the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. (2015, August 5). Puerto Rico Has Another Debt Worry on Horizon. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jonas, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Arlot-Bonnemains & Prigent, 2002; Jonas, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Arlot-Bonnemains & Prigent, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Pfingsten et al., 2006)
  • 6 or more authors: (Lee et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleIntellectual Economics
ISSN (print)1822-8011

Other styles