How to format your references using the Intellectual Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Intellectual Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dearing, A. (2007). Enabling Europe to innovate. Science (New York, N.Y.), 315(5810), 344–347.
A journal article with 2 authors
Farzadfard, F., & Lu, T. K. (2014). Synthetic biology. Genomically encoded analog memory with precise in vivo DNA writing in living cell populations. Science (New York, N.Y.), 346(6211), 1256272.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gaillard, F., Scaillet, B., & Arndt, N. T. (2011). Atmospheric oxygenation caused by a change in volcanic degassing pressure. Nature, 478(7368), 229–232.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Press, D., Ladd, T. D., Zhang, B., & Yamamoto, Y. (2008). Complete quantum control of a single quantum dot spin using ultrafast optical pulses. Nature, 456(7219), 218–221.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bauer, E. (2010). Design for Reliability. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kadyrzhanov, K. K., & Rusakov, V. S. (Eds.). (2006). SSP 2004: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Solid State Physics (SSP 2004), Workshop “Mössbauer Spectroscopy of Locally Heterogeneous Systems”, held in Almaty, Kazakhstan, 23–26 August 2004. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Hörmann, G., Herbst, M., & Eschenbach, C. (2008). Water Relations at Different Scales. In O. Fränzle, L. Kappen, H.-P. Blume, & K. Dierssen (Eds.), Ecosystem Organization of a Complex Landscape: Long-Term Research in the Bornhöved Lake District, Germany (pp. 101–117). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Intellectual Economics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, September 17). Air Pollution Causes More Than 3 Million Premature Deaths A Year Worldwide. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1994). [Comments on DOD Data Center Consolidation Plan] (B-256497). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bankas, J. K. (2014). CAFE—Community and Family Enrichment: Toward Community-Based Mental Health Support for Families [Doctoral dissertation]. Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J. (2017, May 4). The Inexhaustible Four. New York Times, BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dearing, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Dearing, 2007; Farzadfard & Lu, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Farzadfard & Lu, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Gaillard et al., 2011)
  • 6 or more authors: (Press et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleIntellectual Economics
ISSN (print)1822-8011

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