How to format your references using the Intellectual Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Intellectual Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crabtree, R. H. (2010). Chemistry. Creating ligands with multiple personalities. Science (New York, N.Y.), 330(6003), 455–456.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lease, R. O., & Ehlers, T. A. (2013). Incision into the eastern Andean Plateau during Pliocene cooling. Science (New York, N.Y.), 341(6147), 774–776.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen, W., Zhang, S., & Long, X. (2013). Polarisation control through an optical feedback technique and its application in precise measurements. Scientific Reports, 3, 1992.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Atkinson, A., Siegel, V., Pakhomov, E., & Rothery, P. (2004). Long-term decline in krill stock and increase in salps within the Southern Ocean. Nature, 432(7013), 100–103.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shook, J. R. (2010). The God Debates. Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Olson, M. O. J. (Ed.). (2011). The Nucleolus (Vol. 15). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Altmann, K.-H. (2009). Semisynthetic Derivatives of Epothilones. In G. Höfle, R. Müller, J. Mulzer, & K. Prantz (Eds.), The Epothilones: An Outstanding Family of Anti-Tumor Agents: From Soil to the Clinic (pp. 135–156). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Intellectual Economics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, January 10). Are Quantum Dot TVs – And Their Toxic Ingredients – Actually Better For The Environment? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2005). Telecommunications: Greater Involvement Needed by FCC in the Management and Oversight of the E-Rate Program (GAO-05-151). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mai, J. (2017). College Application Behaviors: Factors Impacting the College Choices of High School Seniors [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. (2014, February 17). Honing Their Chances With Photos and Wit. New York Times, D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Crabtree, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Crabtree, 2010; Lease & Ehlers, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lease & Ehlers, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Chen et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Atkinson et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleIntellectual Economics
ISSN (print)1822-8011

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