How to format your references using the Intellectual Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Intellectual Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dance, A. (2015). Micromanagement with light. Nature, 528(7581), 291–294.
A journal article with 2 authors
Petronczki, M., & Uhlmann, F. (2012). Cell biology. ESCRTing DNA at the cleavage site during cytokinesis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6078), 166–167.
A journal article with 3 authors
Oxborrow, M., Breeze, J. D., & Alford, N. M. (2012). Room-temperature solid-state maser. Nature, 488(7411), 353–356.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Acinas, S. G., Klepac-Ceraj, V., Hunt, D. E., Pharino, C., Ceraj, I., Distel, D. L., & Polz, M. F. (2004). Fine-scale phylogenetic architecture of a complex bacterial community. Nature, 430(6999), 551–554.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bertolo, D. (2016). Interactions on Digital Tablets in the Context of 3D Geometry Learning. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Höhn, C., Avramov, D., & Kotowska, I. E. (Eds.). (2008). People, Population Change and Policies: Lessons from the Population Policy Acceptance Study Vol. 1: Family Change (Vol. 16/1). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Das, P., Dutta, G., Mandal, N. K., & Sinha, B. K. (2015). OCDs in Balanced Incomplete Block Design Set-Up. In G. Dutta, N. K. Mandal, & B. K. Sinha (Eds.), Optimal Covariate Designs: Theory and Applications (pp. 41–63). Springer India.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Intellectual Economics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 12). From Smokey Bear To Climate Change: The Future Of Wildland Fire Management. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1971). Need To Remove More Low-Cost, Low-Usage Items From Inventories (B-133118). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reitz, M. A. (2016). Nonlinear Robust Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors With Applications to Hybrid Electric Vehicles [Doctoral dissertation]. Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. (2010, October 3). Burgers With Attitude. New York Times, NJ9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dance, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Dance, 2015; Petronczki & Uhlmann, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Petronczki & Uhlmann, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Oxborrow et al., 2012)
  • 6 or more authors: (Acinas et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleIntellectual Economics
ISSN (print)1822-8011

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