How to format your references using the BMC Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Peeples MS. Astronomy: Cosmic fog and smog. Nature. 2015;517:444–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Trainor P, Krumlauf R. Development. Riding the crest of the Wnt signaling wave. Science. 2002;297:781–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Usami Y, Wu Y, Göttlinger HG. SERINC3 and SERINC5 restrict HIV-1 infectivity and are counteracted by Nef. Nature. 2015;526:218–23.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Ford MG, Pearse BM, Higgins MK, Vallis Y, Owen DJ, Gibson A, et al. Simultaneous binding of PtdIns(4,5)P2 and clathrin by AP180 in the nucleation of clathrin lattices on membranes. Science. 2001;291:1051–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Scheller-Sheridan C. Basic Guide to Dental Instruments. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.; 2011.
An edited book
1. Schewe K-D, Thalheim B, editors. Semantics in Data and Knowledge Bases: 4th International Workshops, SDKB 2010, Bordeaux, France, July 5, 2010, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Emani C. The Effects of Transgenic Crops on Non-target Organisms. In: Ahuja MR, Ramawat KG, editors. Biotechnology and Biodiversity. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 59–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Medicine.

Blog post
1. Andrew D. Why Can’t We Remember Our Early Childhood? IFLScience. 2016. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. NASA: Commercial Partners Are Making Progress, but Face Aggressive Schedules to Demonstrate Critical Space Station Cargo Transport Capabilities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Westgate M. La Boutique Fantasque: A full score edition for wind band. Doctoral dissertation. University of Cincinnati; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kennedy R, Davey M. Detroit’s Creditors Eye Its Art Collection. New York Times. 2013;:C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Medicine
AbbreviationBMC Med.
ISSN (online)1741-7015
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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