How to format your references using the Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
H. Larson, The world must accept that the HPV vaccine is safe, Nature. 528 (2015) 9.
A journal article with 2 authors
W.C. Sanderson, S. Scherbov, Demography. Remeasuring aging, Science. 329 (2010) 1287–1288.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. Akbarzadeh, C.-W. Qiu, A.J. Danner, Exploiting design freedom in biaxial dielectrics to enable spatially overlapping optical instruments, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2055.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S.M. Warren, L.J. Brunet, R.M. Harland, A.N. Economides, M.T. Longaker, The BMP antagonist noggin regulates cranial suture fusion, Nature. 422 (2003) 625–629.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
G. Likhtenshtein, Solar Energy Conversion, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2012.
An edited book
X. Jiang, M. Ferrer, A. Torsello, eds., Graph-Based Representations in Pattern Recognition: 8th IAPR-TC-15 International Workshop, GbRPR 2011, Münster, Germany, May 18-20, 2011. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Perrier, Y. Champoux, J.-M. Drouet, Using Substructuring to Predict the Human Hand Influence on a Mechanical Structure, in: R. Mayes, D. Rixen, D.T. Griffith, D. De Klerk, S. Chauhan, S.N. Voormeeren, M.S. Allen (Eds.), Topics in Experimental Dynamics Substructuring and Wind Turbine Dynamics, Volume 2: Proceedings of the 30th IMAC, A Conference on Structural Dynamics, 2012, Springer, New York, NY, 2012: pp. 33–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics.

Blog post
E. Andrew, How We Found Out There Are Three Trillion Trees On Earth, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Information Technology: OMB’s Dashboard Has Increased Transparency and Oversight, but Improvements Needed, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
W. Meng, Synthesis and design of microwave wideband filters and components, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Kenigsberg, The King’s Choice, New York Times. (2017) C11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProgress in Particle and Nuclear Physics
AbbreviationProg. Part. Nucl. Phys.
ISSN (print)0146-6410
ScopeNuclear and High Energy Physics

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