How to format your references using the Frontiers in Mechanical Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Mechanical Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hittinger, C. T. (2012). Evolution. Endless rots most beautiful. Science 336, 1649–1650.
A journal article with 2 authors
Embley, T. M., and Williams, T. A. (2015). Evolution: Steps on the road to eukaryotes. Nature 521, 169–170.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stager, J. C., Day, J. J., and Santini, S. (2004). Comment on “Origin of the superflock of cichlid fishes from Lake Victoria, East Africa.” Science 304, 963; author reply 963.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chiang, S. H., Baumann, C. A., Kanzaki, M., Thurmond, D. C., Watson, R. T., Neudauer, C. L., et al. (2001). Insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation requires the CAP-dependent activation of TC10. Nature 410, 944–948.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tanwir, S., and Perros, H. (2014). VBR Video Traffic Models. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Pfaff, D. W., Kordon, C., Chanson, P., and Christen, Y. eds. (2008). Hormones and Social Behaviour. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Barkowsky, T. (2007). “Modeling Mental Spatial Knowledge Processing,” in Spatial Processing in Navigation, Imagery and Perception, eds. F. Mast and L. Jäncke (Boston, MA: Springer US), 67–84.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Mechanical Engineering.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2017). Problem With NASA’s Juno Spacecraft Will Keep It Stuck In Current Orbit At Jupiter. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997). District of Columbia Draft Emergency Supplemental Funding Request for District of Columbia Public Schools. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Li, X. (2008). Two essays on “mining market basket data: Models and applications in marketing.”

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J. (2017). In East Hampton, an Airport Is Viewed as a Roaring, Round-the-Clock Nuisance. New York Times, A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hittinger, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Hittinger, 2012; Embley and Williams, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Embley and Williams, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Chiang et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Mechanical Engineering
AbbreviationFront. Mech. Eng.
ISSN (online)2297-3079

Other styles