How to format your references using the Frontiers in Mechanical Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Mechanical Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nathan, C. (2015). IMMUNOLOGY. From transient infection to chronic disease. Science 350, 161.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tremaroli, V., and Bäckhed, F. (2012). Functional interactions between the gut microbiota and host metabolism. Nature 489, 242–249.
A journal article with 3 authors
Haas, W., Shepard, B. D., and Gilmore, M. S. (2002). Two-component regulator of Enterococcus faecalis cytolysin responds to quorum-sensing autoinduction. Nature 415, 84–87.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Piva, P. G., DiLabio, G. A., Pitters, J. L., Zikovsky, J., Rezeq, M., Dogel, S., et al. (2005). Field regulation of single-molecule conductivity by a charged surface atom. Nature 435, 658–661.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Guzik, A. (2013). Essentials for Occupational Health Nursing. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ramos, C., Novais, P., Nihan, C. E., and Corchado Rodríguez, J. M. eds. (2014). Ambient Intelligence - Software and Applications: 5th International Symposium on Ambient Intelligence. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Wolf, K. (2016). “Microgestures—Enabling Gesture Input with Busy Hands,” in Peripheral Interaction: Challenges and Opportunities for HCI in the Periphery of Attention Human–Computer Interaction Series., eds. S. Bakker, D. Hausen, and T. Selker (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 95–116.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Mechanical Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Researchers Identify Two New Genetic Variants Linked To Increased Breast Cancer Risk. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999). Year 2000 Computing Challenge: Federal Business Continuity and Contingency Plans and Day One Strategies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hasan, S. N. (2012). Design and optimization of 2012 Formula SAE chassis with finite element analysis for CSULB.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. (2007). Another Summer, Same Dark Stage. New York Times, LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nathan, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Tremaroli and Bäckhed, 2012; Nathan, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tremaroli and Bäckhed, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Piva et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Mechanical Engineering
AbbreviationFront. Mech. Eng.
ISSN (online)2297-3079

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