How to format your references using the Frontiers in Mechanical Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Mechanical Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Worm, B. (2015). ECOLOGY. A most unusual (super)predator. Science 349, 784–785.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rutherford, A. W., and Boussac, A. (2004). Biochemistry. Water photolysis in biology. Science 303, 1782–1784.
A journal article with 3 authors
Poss, K. D., Wilson, L. G., and Keating, M. T. (2002). Heart regeneration in zebrafish. Science 298, 2188–2190.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Weldeab, S., Lea, D. W., Schneider, R. R., and Andersen, N. (2007). 155,000 years of West African monsoon and ocean thermal evolution. Science 316, 1303–1307.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Norwitz, E. R., Saade, G. R., Miller, H., and Davidson, C. M. (2016). Obstetric Clinical Algorithms. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
César, E., Alexander, M., Streit, A., Träff, J. L., Cérin, C., Knüpfer, A., et al. eds. (2009). Euro-Par 2008 Workshops - Parallel Processing: VHPC 2008, UNICORE 2008, HPPC 2008, SGS 2008, PROPER 2008, ROIA 2008, and DPA 2008, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain, August 25-26, 2008, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Dicuangco-Valdez, L., Moree, P., and Solé, P. (2014). “On the Existence of Hermitian Self-Dual Extended Abelian Group Codes,” in Automorphic Forms: Research in Number Theory from Oman Springer Proceedings in Mathematics & Statistics., eds. B. Heim, M. Al-Baali, T. Ibukiyama, and F. Rupp (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 67–84.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Mechanical Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2013). Chemists show how life on Earth may have started. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2015). Information Technology: Management Needs to Address Reporting of IRS Investments’ Cost, Schedule, and Scope Information. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Malkus, N. (2012). Beneath the district averages: Intradistrict differences in teacher compensation expenditures.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
GEORGE GENE GUSTINES; Compiled by BEN SISARIO (2010). Graphic Bullying. New York Times, C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Worm, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Rutherford and Boussac, 2004; Worm, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rutherford and Boussac, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Weldeab et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Mechanical Engineering
AbbreviationFront. Mech. Eng.
ISSN (online)2297-3079

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