How to format your references using the Frontiers in Mechanical Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Mechanical Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Winnacker, E.-L. (2013). A chance to drive forward Europe’s science. Nature 495, 283.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lee, S. C., and Lee, S. J. (2014). Uptake of liquid from wet surfaces by the brush-tipped proboscis of a butterfly. Sci. Rep. 4, 6934.
A journal article with 3 authors
Reynolds, J. N., Hyland, B. I., and Wickens, J. R. (2001). A cellular mechanism of reward-related learning. Nature 413, 67–70.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Christophorou, M. A., Ringshausen, I., Finch, A. J., Swigart, L. B., and Evan, G. I. (2006). The pathological response to DNA damage does not contribute to p53-mediated tumour suppression. Nature 443, 214–217.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Goering, H., Roos, H.-G., and Tobiska, L. (2010). Die Finite-Elemente-Methode für Anfänger. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Muthu, S. S. ed. (2016). Environmental Footprints of Packaging. Singapore: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Walter, C. D. (2011). “Fast Scalar Multiplication for ECC over GF(p) Using Division Chains,” in Information Security Applications: 11th International Workshop, WISA 2010, Jeju Island, Korea, August 24-26, 2010, Revised Selected Papers Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. Y. Chung and M. Yung (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 61–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Mechanical Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Health Check: Do Ice Cream And Cold Drinks Cool Us Down? IFLScience. Available at: https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/health-check-do-ice-cream-and-cold-drinks-cool-us-down/ [Accessed October 30, 2018].

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1978). Shifting the Government’s Automatic Data Processing Requirements to the Private Sector: Further Study and Better Guidance Needed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Siani, J. M. (2009). Costs and benefits of cooperative infant care in wild golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. (2016). Daddy’s Dreams, Recast by His Girls. New York Times, C13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Winnacker, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Winnacker, 2013; Lee and Lee, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lee and Lee, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Christophorou et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Mechanical Engineering
AbbreviationFront. Mech. Eng.
ISSN (online)2297-3079
Scope

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