How to format your references using the Frontiers in Mechanical Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Mechanical Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Johnson, M. (2002). Spintronics: spin accumulation in mesoscopic systems. Nature 416, 809–10; discussion 810.
A journal article with 2 authors
Higley, M. J., and Strittmatter, S. M. (2010). Neuroscience. Lynx for braking plasticity. Science 330, 1189–1190.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mishra, L., Derynck, R., and Mishra, B. (2005). Transforming growth factor-beta signaling in stem cells and cancer. Science 310, 68–71.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zimmerman, C., Klein, K. C., Kiser, P. K., Singh, A. R., Firestein, B. L., Riba, S. C., et al. (2002). Identification of a host protein essential for assembly of immature HIV-1 capsids. Nature 415, 88–92.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jepsen, T. C. (2003). Distributed Storage Networks. West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
von Davier, M., Gonzalez, E., Kirsch, I., and Yamamoto, K. eds. (2013). The Role of International Large-Scale Assessments: Perspectives from Technology, Economy, and Educational Research. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Palit, M., and Levin, S. B. (2016). “Collaborative Therapy with Women and Children Refugees in Houston: Moving Toward Rehabilitation in the United States After Enduring the Atrocities of War,” in Family Therapy in Global Humanitarian Contexts: Voices and Issues from the Field AFTA SpringerBriefs in Family Therapy., eds. L. L. Charlés and G. Samarasinghe (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 39–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Mechanical Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). What will Climate be Like in 2100? Expect Surprises, Says New Met Office Study. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1975). Federal Funding Provided to 10 Police Departments for Intelligence Activities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Taylor, T. E. (2016). Characterizing EGFRvIII-independent glioblastoma maintenance.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gordon, M. R. (2017). U.S. Plan for Afghanistan May Help, but Few Expect ‘Outright Victory.’ New York Times, A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Johnson, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Higley and Strittmatter, 2010; Johnson, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Higley and Strittmatter, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Zimmerman et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Mechanical Engineering
AbbreviationFront. Mech. Eng.
ISSN (online)2297-3079

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