How to format your references using the Forest Ecology and Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Forest Ecology and Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
de Waal, F.B.M., 2005. A century of getting to know the chimpanzee. Nature 437, 56–59.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hong, S.Y., Kalnay, E., 2000. Role of sea surface temperature and soil-moisture feedback in the 1998 Oklahoma-Texas drought. Nature 408, 842–844.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cho, Y., Lee, J.B., Hong, J., 2014. Controlled release of an anti-cancer drug from DNA structured nano-films. Sci. Rep. 4, 4078.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Su, H.T., Hsu, R.R., Chen, A.B., Wang, Y.C., Hsiao, W.S., Lai, W.C., Lee, L.C., Sato, M., Fukunishi, H., 2003. Gigantic jets between a thundercloud and the ionosphere. Nature 423, 974–976.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Liphard, K.G., 2014. Labormanagement. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, D-69451 Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Huang, D.-S., Han, K., Hussain, A. (Eds.), 2016. Intelligent Computing Methodologies: 12th International Conference, ICIC 2016, Lanzhou, China, August 2-5, 2016, Proceedings, Part III, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Tsai, C.-F., 2014. Zisi and the Thought of Zisi and Mencius School, in: Shen, V. (Ed.), Dao Companion to Classical Confucian Philosophy. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 119–138.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Forest Ecology and Management.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Watch Rhinos Being Dehorned To Save Their Lives [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1990. Shared Resources Project: Evaluation Report (No. 142798). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Spanier, A.J., 2008. The Relationship of Genes and Environment with Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Children with Asthma (Doctoral dissertation). University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J., 2016. Indians Get Contributions and Confidence From Unexpected Source. New York Times B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (de Waal, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (de Waal, 2005; Hong and Kalnay, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hong and Kalnay, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Su et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleForest Ecology and Management
AbbreviationFor. Ecol. Manage.
ISSN (print)0378-1127
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Nature and Landscape Conservation

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