How to format your references using the Forest Ecology and Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Forest Ecology and Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Seife, C., 2000. MATERIALS SCIENCE: Long-Wavelength Lasers Sniff Out New Uses. Science 290, 916–917.
A journal article with 2 authors
Trenberth, K.E., Fasullo, J.T., 2010. Climate change. Tracking Earth’s energy. Science 328, 316–317.
A journal article with 3 authors
Udem, T., Holzwarth, R., Hänsch, T.W., 2002. Optical frequency metrology. Nature 416, 233–237.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Akashi, K., Traver, D., Miyamoto, T., Weissman, I.L., 2000. A clonogenic common myeloid progenitor that gives rise to all myeloid lineages. Nature 404, 193–197.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Theodore, L., Kunz, R.G., 2005. Nanotechnology: Environmental Implications and Solutions. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Beese, A.M., Zehnder, A.T., Xia, S. (Eds.), 2016. Fracture, Fatigue, Failure and Damage Evolution, Volume 8: Proceedings of the 2015 Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics, 1st ed. 2016. ed, Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Monaghan, K.G., Van Dyke, D.L., 2006. Laboratory Testing for Prader-Willi Syndrome, in: Butler, M.G., Lee, P.D.K., Whitman, B.Y. (Eds.), Management of Prader-Willi Syndrome. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 74–93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Forest Ecology and Management.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2014. New Liquid Metal Battery Will Make Renewables Competitive [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2001. Federal Trust and Other Earmarked Funds: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions (No. GAO-01-199SP). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ilag, G.M., 2014. An examination of the entity participants’ collaborative partnerships within the United Nations Global Compact (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L., 2007. Suffolk Seeks Ways to Ease School Taxes. New York Times 14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Seife, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Seife, 2000; Trenberth and Fasullo, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Trenberth and Fasullo, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Akashi et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleForest Ecology and Management
AbbreviationFor. Ecol. Manage.
ISSN (print)0378-1127
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Nature and Landscape Conservation

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