How to format your references using the Forest Ecology and Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Forest Ecology and Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bignami, G., 2009. Why we need space travel. Nature 460, 325.
A journal article with 2 authors
Etterson, J.R., Shaw, R.G., 2001. Constraint to adaptive evolution in response to global warming. Science 294, 151–154.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shubin, N.H., Daeschler, E.B., Jenkins, F.A., Jr, 2006. The pectoral fin of Tiktaalik roseae and the origin of the tetrapod limb. Nature 440, 764–771.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zeng, Y., Lu, G., Wang, H., Du, J., Ying, Z., Liu, C., 2014. Positive temperature coefficient thermistors based on carbon nanotube/polymer composites. Sci. Rep. 4, 6684.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kölle, W., 2017. Wasseranalysen - richtig beurteilt. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Thany, S.H. (Ed.), 2010. Insect Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Bhojwani, S.S., Dantu, P.K., 2013. Tissue and Cell Culture, in: Dantu, P.K. (Ed.), Plant Tissue Culture: An Introductory Text. Springer India, New Delhi, pp. 39–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Forest Ecology and Management.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2017. Check Out This Cool Footage Of Dust Devils Tearing Across Mars [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2007. Federal Family Education Loan Program: Eliminating the Exceptional Performer Designation Would Result in Substantial Savings without Adversely Affecting the Loan Program (No. GAO-07-1087). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rodriguez, F., 2010. Grant proposal: Providing effective screening, training, and supervision for an at-risk youth mentoring program (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J., 2016. Mets’ Hobbled Rotation Takes Another Big Hit Before a Loss to the Nationals. New York Times D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bignami, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Bignami, 2009; Etterson and Shaw, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Etterson and Shaw, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Zeng et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleForest Ecology and Management
AbbreviationFor. Ecol. Manage.
ISSN (print)0378-1127
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Nature and Landscape Conservation

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