How to format your references using the Forest Ecology and Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Forest Ecology and Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grafton, A., 2015. Lisa Jardine (1944-2015). Nature 528, 40.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wassarman, K.M., Saecker, R.M., 2006. Synthesis-mediated release of a small RNA inhibitor of RNA polymerase. Science 314, 1601–1603.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, X., Zhao, J., Yang, J., 2013. Semihydrogenated BN sheet: a promising visible-light driven photocatalyst for water splitting. Sci. Rep. 3, 1858.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jensen, T., van de Bildt, M., Dietz, H.H., Andersen, T.H., Hammer, A.S., Kuiken, T., Osterhaus, A., 2002. Another phocine distemper outbreak in Europe. Science 297, 209.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mowlaee, P., Kulmer, J., Stahl, J., Mayer, F., 2017. Single Channel Phase-Aware Signal Processing in Speech Communication: Theory and Practice. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Alexandrov, V.N., Albada, G.D. van, Sloot, P.M.A., Dongarra, J. (Eds.), 2006. Computational Science – ICCS 2006: 6th International Conference, Reading, UK, May 28-31, 2006, Proceedings, Part I, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Rose, S., van der Laan, M.J., 2011. Introduction to TMLE, in: Rose, S. (Ed.), Targeted Learning: Causal Inference for Observational and Experimental Data, Springer Series in Statistics. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 67–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Forest Ecology and Management.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Exoskeleton Provides Comfortable Seat Anytime, Anywhere [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1986. Federal Funding Mechanisms in Support of University Research (No. 129326). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Di Giacomo, F.A., 2010. Education amidst transition: The case of Romania (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eligon, J., Smith, M., 2017. Police Shooting Rattles Somalis in Minneapolis. New York Times A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Grafton, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Grafton, 2015; Wassarman and Saecker, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wassarman and Saecker, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Jensen et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleForest Ecology and Management
AbbreviationFor. Ecol. Manage.
ISSN (print)0378-1127
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Nature and Landscape Conservation

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