How to format your references using the Forest Ecology and Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Forest Ecology and Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clarke, J., 2013. Paleontology. Feathers before flight. Science 340, 690–692.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jazayeri, M., Movshon, J.A., 2007. A new perceptual illusion reveals mechanisms of sensory decoding. Nature 446, 912–915.
A journal article with 3 authors
Whiting, M.F., Bradler, S., Maxwell, T., 2003. Loss and recovery of wings in stick insects. Nature 421, 264–267.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hinde, E., Yokomori, K., Gaus, K., Hahn, K.M., Gratton, E., 2014. Fluctuation-based imaging of nuclear Rac1 activation by protein oligomerisation. Sci. Rep. 4, 4219.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Exposito, E., Diop, C., 2014. Smart SOA Platforms in Cloud Computing Architectures. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Winter, H., 2007. Slow Heavy-Particle Induced Electron Emission from Solid Surfaces, Springer Tracts in Modern Physics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Im, S.H., Huang, R., 2006. Morphological Instability and Kinetics of an Elastic Film on a Viscoelastic Layer, in: Sun, Q.P., Tong, P. (Eds.), IUTAM Symposium on Size Effects on Material and Structural Behavior at Micron- and Nano-Scales: Proceedings of the IUTAM Symposium Held in Hong Kong, China, 31 May–4 June, 2004. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 41–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Forest Ecology and Management.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2014. Canadian Weather Forecasters Forbidden From Discussing Climate Change [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2010. Highway Bridge Program: Condition of Nation’s Bridges Shows Limited Improvement, but Further Actions Could Enhance the Impact of Federal Investment (No. GAO-10-930T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Landry, C., 2017. A Phenomenological Investigation of the Factors that Influence Motivation, Recruitment and Retention of Volunteers Age 65 and Over (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Clarke, J., 2016. Surf’s Up, Finally, for Women at America’s Premier Big-Wave Competition. New York Times D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Clarke, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Clarke, 2013; Jazayeri and Movshon, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jazayeri and Movshon, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Hinde et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleForest Ecology and Management
AbbreviationFor. Ecol. Manage.
ISSN (print)0378-1127
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Nature and Landscape Conservation

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