How to format your references using the Forest Ecology and Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Forest Ecology and Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Deweerdt, S., 2012. Comparative biology: Looking for a master switch. Nature 492, S10-1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Popp, M.W., Maquat, L.E., 2015. RNA. A TRICK’n way to see the pioneer round of translation. Science 347, 1316–1317.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kirk, P.D.W., Babtie, A.C., Stumpf, M.P.H., 2015. SYSTEMS BIOLOGY. Systems biology (un)certainties. Science 350, 386–388.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nguyen, K.B., Watford, W.T., Salomon, R., Hofmann, S.R., Pien, G.C., Morinobu, A., Gadina, M., O’Shea, J.J., Biron, C.A., 2002. Critical role for STAT4 activation by type 1 interferons in the interferon-gamma response to viral infection. Science 297, 2063–2066.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rowe, W.B., 2010. Modern Grinding Techniques. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Rehm, G., Uszkoreit, H. (Eds.), 2012. The Romanian Language in the Digital Age, White Paper Series. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Zamfirescu, C., Dincer, I., Verrelli, T., Wagar, W.R., 2010. Residential Solar Power Generation Systems for Better Environment, in: Dincer, I., Hepbasli, A., Midilli, A., Karakoc, T.H. (Eds.), Global Warming: Engineering Solutions, Green Energy and Technology. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp. 89–107.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Forest Ecology and Management.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Four Times As Many Men As Women Are Diagnosed With Cannabis Psychosis [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1991. High-Performance Computing: Industry Uses of Supercomputers and High-Speed Networks (No. IMTEC-91-58). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Holland, J.H., 2010. Investigating the relationship between the policy implementation process and the utilization of information technology in a constitutional republic: The case of I-269 NEPA process (Doctoral dissertation). Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pennington, B., Belson, K., 2017. Panthers’ Newton Stands Out in a Quieter Week of Player Protests. New York Times D7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Deweerdt, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Deweerdt, 2012; Popp and Maquat, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Popp and Maquat, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Nguyen et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleForest Ecology and Management
AbbreviationFor. Ecol. Manage.
ISSN (print)0378-1127
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Nature and Landscape Conservation

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