How to format your references using the Progress in Orthodontics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Progress in Orthodontics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Bordignon C. Stem-cell therapies for blood diseases. Nature. 2006;441:1100–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Kepecs A, Fishell G. Interneuron cell types are fit to function. Nature. 2014;505:318–26.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Hao X, Martin-Rouault L, Cui M. A self-adaptive method for creating high efficiency communication channels through random scattering media. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5874.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Chen S, Rotaru A-E, Shrestha PM, Malvankar NS, Liu F, Fan W, et al. Promoting interspecies electron transfer with biochar. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5019.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Flood BG. Wealth Exposed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
1. Gelenbe E, Lent R, editors. Computer and Information Sciences III: 27th International Symposium on Computer and Information Sciences. London: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Chruszcz-Lipska K, Blanch EW. Raman Optical Activity of Biological Samples. In: Baranska M, editor. Optical Spectroscopy and Computational Methods in Biology and Medicine. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014. p. 61–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Progress in Orthodontics.

Blog post
1. Fang J. How A Panda Mom’s Milk Changes As Her Cub Grows [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Tax System Modernization: Status of IRS’ Input Processing Initiative. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990 Dec. Report No.: IMTEC-91-9.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Fay C. Aposematic Variation and the Evolution of Warning Coloration in Mammals [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Detrick B. Goldie’s. New York Times. 2016 Nov 23;D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProgress in Orthodontics
AbbreviationProg. Orthod.
ISSN (online)2196-1042

Other styles