How to format your references using the Progress in Orthodontics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Progress in Orthodontics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Putnis A. Materials science. Why mineral interfaces matter. Science. 2014;343:1441–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Schreiber H, Rowley DA. Cancer. Quo vadis, specificity? Science. 2008;319:164–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Rudolph ML, Lekić V, Lithgow-Bertelloni C. Viscosity jump in Earth’s mid-mantle. Science. 2015;350:1349–52.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Kiendler-Scharr A, Wildt J, Dal Maso M, Hohaus T, Kleist E, Mentel TF, et al. New particle formation in forests inhibited by isoprene emissions. Nature. 2009;461:381–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Laursen GHN, Thorlund J. Business Analytics for Managers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
1. Norman RA. Atlas of Geriatric Dermatology. Young EM Jr, editor. London: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Ramasubramanian K, Sriram MS. Solar eclipse. In: Sriram MS, editor. Tantrasaṅgraha of Nīlakaṇṭha Somayājī. London: Springer; 2011. p. 305–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Progress in Orthodontics.

Blog post
1. Andrew D. Six Cosmic Catastrophes That Could Wipe Out Life On Earth. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Federal Air Marshal Service: Actions Needed to Better Incorporate Risk in Deployment Strategy. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016 May. Report No.: GAO-16-582.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Gelbart O. Integrated hardware/software approaches to software security for embedded systems [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. St. John Kelly E. CHILDREN’S BOOKS. New York Times. 1994 Sep 25;732.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProgress in Orthodontics
AbbreviationProg. Orthod.
ISSN (online)2196-1042

Other styles