How to format your references using the Progress in Orthodontics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Progress in Orthodontics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Lastoskie C. Chemistry. Caging carbon dioxide. Science. 2010;330:595–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Lucas D, Frenette PS. Stem cells: Reprogramming finds its niche. Nature. 2014;511:301–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Miller PM, Gavrilets S, Rice WR. Sexual conflict via maternal-effect genes in ZW species. Science. 2006;312:73.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Happel P, Möller K, Schwering NK, Dietzel ID. Migrating oligodendrocyte progenitor cells swell prior to soma dislocation. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1806.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Tewari A. Advanced Control of Aircraft, Spacecraft and Rockets. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
1. Al-Khayri JM, Jain SM, Johnson DV, editors. Advances in Plant Breeding Strategies: Agronomic, Abiotic and Biotic Stress Traits. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Ghielmetti C, Giberti H, Resta F. Modeling and Testing of a Concrete Pumping Group Control System. In: Vasques CMA, Dias Rodrigues J, editors. Vibration and Structural Acoustics Analysis: Current Research and Related Technologies. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011. p. 99–119.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Progress in Orthodontics.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. It Feels Instantaneous, but How Long Does it Really Take to Think a Thought? IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. National Airspace System: Observations on the Wide Area Augmentation System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997 Oct. Report No.: T-RCED-98-12.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Ji Y. Dynamic Genetic Control: Manipulating Cell Behaviors Using Heat [Doctoral dissertation]. [La Jolla, CA]: University of California San Diego; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Mueller B, Baker AL. Heroin Market Shapes Enforcer’s Rise and Fall. New York Times. 2016 Jun 27;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProgress in Orthodontics
AbbreviationProg. Orthod.
ISSN (online)2196-1042

Other styles