How to format your references using the Progress in Orthodontics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Progress in Orthodontics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Lehmann FO. Matching spiracle opening to metabolic need during flight in Drosophila. Science. 2001;294:1926–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Kuwayama H, Ishida S. Biological soliton in multicellular movement. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2272.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Lovejoy CO, Heiple KG, Meindl RS. Palaeoanthropology: Did our ancestors knuckle-walk? Nature. 2001;410:325–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Koizumi S, Shigemoto-Mogami Y, Nasu-Tada K, Shinozaki Y, Ohsawa K, Tsuda M, et al. UDP acting at P2Y6 receptors is a mediator of microglial phagocytosis. Nature. 2007;446:1091–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Permyakov EA, Kretsinger RH. Calcium Binding Proteins. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
1. Canuto C. Mathematical Analysis I. Second Edition. Tabacco A, editor. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Ambe D, Kaeriyama H, Shigenobu Y, Fujimoto K, Ono T, Sawada H, et al. Three-Dimensional Distribution of Radiocesium in Sea Sediment Derived from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. In: Nakata K, Sugisaki H, editors. Impacts of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident on Fish and Fishing Grounds. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2015. p. 53–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Progress in Orthodontics.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Spike In Leprosy Cases Linked to Armadillos [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Unmanned Vehicles: Assessment of DOD’s Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Master Plan. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988 Dec. Report No.: NSIAD-89-41BR.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Pierce ZD. The relationship between nursing instructors’ transformational leadership behaviors in the clinical learning environment and associate degree nursing students’ communication apprehension [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Wagner J. Mets Fall Again, and Weigh Options. New York Times. 2017 Jul 31;D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProgress in Orthodontics
AbbreviationProg. Orthod.
ISSN (online)2196-1042

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