How to format your references using the Progress in Oceanography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Progress in Oceanography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Switzer, J.A., 2012. Chemistry. Atomic layer electrodeposition. Science 338, 1300–1301.
A journal article with 2 authors
Xavier, R.J., Podolsky, D.K., 2007. Unravelling the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Nature 448, 427–434.
A journal article with 3 authors
Son, Y.-W., Cohen, M.L., Louie, S.G., 2006. Half-metallic graphene nanoribbons. Nature 444, 347–349.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wu, X., Yang, Z.-Y., Li, Y., Hogerkorp, C.-M., Schief, W.R., Seaman, M.S., Zhou, T., Schmidt, S.D., Wu, L., Xu, L., Longo, N.S., McKee, K., O’Dell, S., Louder, M.K., Wycuff, D.L., Feng, Y., Nason, M., Doria-Rose, N., Connors, M., Kwong, P.D., Roederer, M., Wyatt, R.T., Nabel, G.J., Mascola, J.R., 2010. Rational design of envelope identifies broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies to HIV-1. Science 329, 856–861.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pasternak, H., Hoch, H.-U., Füg, D., 2010. Stahltragwerke im Industriebau. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Padovani, F., Richardson, A., Tsou, J.Y. (Eds.), 2015. Objectivity in Science: New Perspectives from Science and Technology Studies, Boston Studies in the Philosophy and History of Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Tololyan, K., 2005. Armenian Diaspora, in: Ember, M., Ember, C.R., Skoggard, I. (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Diasporas: Immigrant and Refugee Cultures Around the World. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp. 35–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Progress in Oceanography.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2015. Humanity Has Already Used An Entire Earth’s Worth Of Resources This Year [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1980. The National Institute of Education Should Further Increase Minority and Female Participation in Its Activities (No. HRD-81-3). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McCready, M., 2017. Examining the Role of Community Capacity for Sustainable Water Planning through Local Urban Governance: A Case Study Analysis of Waukesha, Wisconsin (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G.G., 2016. Intimate Portraits of a Golden Era. New York Times B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Switzer, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Switzer, 2012; Xavier and Podolsky, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Xavier and Podolsky, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Wu et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleProgress in Oceanography
AbbreviationProg. Oceanogr.
ISSN (print)0079-6611
ScopeAquatic Science

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