How to format your references using the Progress in Oceanography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Progress in Oceanography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bernstein, R., 2015. Improving student advising. Science 350, 710.
A journal article with 2 authors
Salinga, M., Wuttig, M., 2011. Applied physics. Phase-change memories on a diet. Science 332, 543–544.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jakobsen, L., Ratcliffe, J.M., Surlykke, A., 2013. Convergent acoustic field of view in echolocating bats. Nature 493, 93–96.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tan, J., Wang, G., Liu, Z.Y., Bednarčík, J., Gao, Y.L., Zhai, Q.J., Mattern, N., Eckert, J., 2014. Correlation between atomic structure evolution and strength in a bulk metallic glass at cryogenic temperature. Sci. Rep. 4, 3897.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Goodhew, S., 2016. Sustainable Construction Processes. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Herkenhoff, L., 2013. Applied Statistics for Business and Management using Microsoft Excel. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Cao, Y., Leroux, P., Steyaert, M., 2015. Radiation Hardened Bandgap References, in: Leroux, P., Steyaert, M. (Eds.), Radiation-Tolerant Delta-Sigma Time-to-Digital Converters, Analog Circuits and Signal Processing. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 69–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Progress in Oceanography.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2016. California Legislature Votes To Fund Country’s First Gun Violence Research Unit [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2005. Charter Schools: To Enhance Education’s Monitoring and Research, More Charter School-Level Data Are Needed (No. GAO-05-5). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
MacKinder, M., 2010. Max the Knife, Salesman (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Link, K., 2015. Subversive Pleasure. New York Times BR29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bernstein, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Bernstein, 2015; Salinga and Wuttig, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Salinga and Wuttig, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Tan et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleProgress in Oceanography
AbbreviationProg. Oceanogr.
ISSN (print)0079-6611
ScopeAquatic Science

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