How to format your references using the Progress in Oceanography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Progress in Oceanography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Porter, S.M., 2007. Seawater chemistry and early carbonate biomineralization. Science 316, 1302.
A journal article with 2 authors
Massol, F., Crochet, P.-A., 2008. Do animal personalities emerge? Nature 451, E8-9; discussion E9-10.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nasrallah, M.E., Liu, P., Nasrallah, J.B., 2002. Generation of self-incompatible Arabidopsis thaliana by transfer of two S locus genes from A. lyrata. Science 297, 247–249.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Luquet, S., Perez, F.A., Hnasko, T.S., Palmiter, R.D., 2005. NPY/AgRP neurons are essential for feeding in adult mice but can be ablated in neonates. Science 310, 683–685.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lam, J., 2014. Enterprise Risk Management. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Baer, S., 2015. Transport Spectroscopy of Confined Fractional Quantum Hall Systems, 1st ed. 2015. ed, Springer Series in Solid-State Sciences. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Boutekkouk, F., Tolba, Z., Okab, M., 2011. Automatic Interface Generation between Incompatible Intellectual Properties (IPs) from UML Models, in: Abraham, A., Lloret Mauri, J., Buford, J.F., Suzuki, J., Thampi, S.M. (Eds.), Advances in Computing and Communications: First International Conference, ACC 2011, Kochi, India, July 22-24, 2011. Proceedings, Part II, Communications in Computer and Information Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 40–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Progress in Oceanography.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016. A Brain-Eating Amoeba Has Infected A Person In The US [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1984. The Unit Status and Identity Report (UNITREP) System--What It Does and Does Not Measure (No. NSIAD-84-39). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boyer, G.C., 2012. Best Practices for Student Success on the ACT (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Longman, J., 2009. For the World’s Best Players, Italy Isn’t the Lure It Once Was. New York Times B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Porter, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Massol and Crochet, 2008; Porter, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Massol and Crochet, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Luquet et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleProgress in Oceanography
AbbreviationProg. Oceanogr.
ISSN (print)0079-6611
ScopeAquatic Science

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