How to format your references using the Progress in Oceanography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Progress in Oceanography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sarewitz, D., 2013. Science must be seen to bridge the political divide. Nature 493, 7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bengtson, S., Budd, G., 2004. Comment on “Small bilaterian fossils from 40 to 55 million years before the Cambrian.” Science 306, 1291; author reply 1291.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mueller, K., Hough, S.E., Bilham, R., 2004. Analysing the 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquakes with recent instrumentally recorded aftershocks. Nature 429, 284–288.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Scheffel, A., Gruska, M., Faivre, D., Linaroudis, A., Plitzko, J.M., Schüler, D., 2006. An acidic protein aligns magnetosomes along a filamentous structure in magnetotactic bacteria. Nature 440, 110–114.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Szpankowski, W., 2001. Average Case Analysis of Algorithms on Sequences. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Alpini, D.C., 2014. Vertigo Rehabilitation Protocols. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Kou, G., Ergu, D., Peng, Y., Shi, Y., 2013. IBMM for Missing Data Estimation, in: Ergu, D., Peng, Y., Shi, Y. (Eds.), Data Processing for the AHP/ANP, Quantitative Management. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 65–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Progress in Oceanography.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Better Hurricane Observation Techniques Over The Decades Make Big Storms Less Deadly [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2008. Office of Personnel Management: Improvements Needed to Ensure Successful Retirement Systems Modernization (No. GAO-08-345). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garapati, S.H., 2013. Analytical and Numerical Modeling of Assembly Procedures of Steel Fulcra of Bascule Bridges (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M., 2010. A Bag That Says ‘Beach Day!’ New York Times E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sarewitz, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Bengtson and Budd, 2004; Sarewitz, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bengtson and Budd, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Scheffel et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleProgress in Oceanography
AbbreviationProg. Oceanogr.
ISSN (print)0079-6611
ScopeAquatic Science

Other styles